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Kamis, 23 Desember 2010

HOUSE of KING DAVID / PONDOK RAJA DAUD


The Pottery driven chronology of the ancient Middle East is obviously at odds with written historical records! Introduction


House of David Inscription
House of David Inscription
Prasasti king David's .
Sebuah prasasti yang berisi kata-kata "rumah Daud" ditemukan di atas batu basal hitam lempengan disebut Prasasti Tel Dan, dari Tel Dan, Israel, 9 Century SMSebuah prasasti yang berisi kata-kata "rumah Daud" ditemukan di atas batu basal hitam lempengan disebut Prasasti Tel Dan, dari Tel Dan, Israel, 9 Century SM.



Itu adalah prasasti kemenangan didirikan oleh raja Aramaean utara Israel. Prasasti itu berisi tulisan Aram memperingati kemenangannya atas Israel. Penulis adalah Hazael paling mungkin atau anaknya, Ben Hadad II atau III, yang raja Damaskus, dan musuh dari kerajaan Israel. Prasasti ini ditemukan di Tel Dan, yang semula bernama Tell el-Qadi, gundukan di mana pernah berdiri sebuah kota di ujung utara Israel.

Museum Israel, Yerusalem
Prasasti rumah Daud, Arkeologi Alkitab

1 Raja-raja 2:11 - Dan hari-hari yang Daud memerintah atas Israel [itu] empat puluh tahun: tujuh tahun ia memerintah di Hebron, dan tiga puluh tiga tahun ia memerintah di Yerusalem.

Bahan - Basalt Batu Prasasti
Israel Periode Raja
Tanggal: 858-824 SM
Bahasa: Bahasa Aram
Tinggi: 32 cm
Lebar: 22 cm
Kedalaman:
Tel Dan, Galilea
Digali oleh: Abraham Biran 1994
Lokasi: Museum Israel, Yerusalem



The House Of David Inscription

Prasasti Dari Rumah David

 

For some inexplicable reason, it has become fashionable in a current genre of Bible assailing literature for writers to make uncorroborated statements concerning a supposed lack of Old Testament evidence in certain respects. Among these assaults are those which claim there are no archaeological references concerning the Judah Kings of the Royal House of David (c. 1008-586 BC) and the Jerusalem Temple of King David's son Jedidiah - better known as King Solomon.
Such statements are completely untrue and, in respect of the House of David and the Temple of Yahweh, it is worth citing some archaeological examples contemporary with the biblical period in question.
In 1993 a discovery was made at Tel Dan (at the foot of Mount Hermon) which became the most significant artifact in the modern State of Israel. It is now regarded as a national treasure since it proves, irrespective of the Bible, that the House of David was an historic reality.
Excavations began at Tel Dan, Northern Israel, in 1966 under the direction of archaeologist Avrham Biran. After a few years of digging, a monumental mud-brick gate was unearthed, with an arch constructed by the Canaanites in around 1850 BC - long before the Israelites arrived in the region. In those times the Dan location was called Leshem (Joshua 19:47) or Laish (Judges 18:27). The Canaanite Gate is now a conservation project of the Israeli Antiquities Authority.
Also revealed, before cessation of the 33-year dig in 1999, were the city walls, an Israelite sanctuary, sacred pillars, a tomb and various artifacts.
The Canaanite Gate


   
Untuk beberapa alasan yang tak dapat dijelaskan, hal itu telah menjadi mode dalam genre sastra saat assailing Alkitab bagi para penulis untuk membuat pernyataan uncorroborated tentang kurangnya bukti seharusnya Perjanjian Lama dalam hal-hal tertentu. Di antara serangan adalah mereka yang mengklaim tidak ada referensi arkeologi tentang Raja Yehuda dari Royal House Daud (c. 1008-586 SM) dan Kuil Yerusalem Raja Daud putra Jedidiah - lebih dikenal sebagai Raja Salomo.

    
laporan tersebut sepenuhnya tidak benar dan sehubungan dari House of David dan Kuil Yahweh, ada baiknya mengutip beberapa contoh arkeologi kontemporer dengan periode alkitabiah dalam pertanyaan.


    
Pada tahun 1993 penemuan dibuat di Tel Dan (di kaki Gunung Hermon) yang menjadi artefak yang paling signifikan di Negara Israel modern. Hal ini sekarang dianggap sebagai harta nasional sejak itu membuktikan, terlepas dari Alkitab, bahwa House of David realitas yang bersejarah.

    
Penggalian mulai di Tel Dan, Israel Utara, pada tahun 1966 di bawah arahan arkeolog Avrham Biran. Setelah beberapa tahun menggali, sebuah gerbang-bata lumpur monumental itu ditemukan, dengan lengkungan yang dibangun oleh orang Kanaan di sekitar 1850 SM - jauh sebelum bangsa Israel tiba di wilayah tersebut. Pada waktu itu lokasi Dan disebut Lesem (Yosua 19:47) atau Lais (Hakim-hakim 18:27). Gerbang Kanaan sekarang menjadi proyek konservasi dari Israel Antiquities Authority.

    
Juga mengungkapkan, sebelum penghentian penggalian 33 tahun pada tahun 1999, tembok-tembok kota, suatu tempat kudus Israel, pilar suci, makam dan berbagai artefak.

    
Gerbang Kanaan

    
Di antara reruntuhan kota, di depan Gerbang ditemukan sisa-sisa sebuah prasasti basalt besar - fragmen terbesar yang 32 x 22 cm (12,5 x 8,75 inci). Pada ini, tiga belas baris script bahasa Aram yang sebagian dilestarikan dari sekitar 825 SM, segera setelah masa Raja Ahab dari Israel dan lineal keturunan Daud, Raja Jehosaphat Yehuda.

    
Prasasti itu diciptakan oleh Raja Hazael dari Aram-Damaskus pada sekitar 825 SM, dan hal ini berkaitan dengan ayahnya, Hadad II, yang menang dalam pertempuran melawan Jehosaphat (c. 860 SM). Aspek yang paling penting dari teks, bagaimanapun, adalah bahwa secara khusus berhubungan dengan Hadad mengalahkan "kaki prajurit, charioteers dan penunggang kuda Raja House of David".

    
Tel lebih berharga Prasasti Dan sekarang berada di Museum Israel, Yerusalem.

    
Rumah Prasasti Daud

    
Batu Moab

    
Lain membanggakan raja prasasti konflik dengan Dewan Daud adalah Batu Moab dari sekitar 860 SM. 42 ini dengan 24 inci monumen basal hitam (107 x 61 cm) ditemukan pada 1868 di Dhiban, 20 mil sebelah timur Laut Mati (di seberang En-Gedi) dan sekarang disimpan di Museum Louvre, Paris. Sebagaimana dilaporkan dalam Time Magazine, Desember 1995, itu adalah prasasti yang paling luas yang pernah pulih dari Palestina kuno.

    
Batu Moab berisi 36 baris script Fenisia yang berhubungan dengan pemberontakan Mesha Raja Moab melawan Raja Yoram dan Raja Israel Jehosaphat Yehuda. Peperangan ini diceritakan dalam Perjanjian Lama 2 Raja-3:5-27.

    
Para Prasasti Mesha Moab

    
Ditemukan oleh FA Klein Jerman misionaris,, Batu Moab yang disebabkan pertempuran lain ketika Museum Berlin menyatakan minat menghilangkan ke Barat. Jewish Encyclopedia menceritakan bahwa, mendengar tentang ini, orang Arab lokal mengangkat keluar dari bumi, api menyala di sekitarnya dan disiram dengan air dingin sehingga terfragmentasi. Mediasi selanjutnya dilakukan oleh Konsulat Perancis di Yerusalem, yang konservator dipulihkan artefak, sambil menawarkan cukup uang untuk membeli House of David Moab Stone dan menenangkan penduduk Dhiban.

    
Rumah Tuhan

    
Kuil Yerusalem anak Daud, Raja Salomo, adalah sesuatu dari sebuah teka-teki sampai tahun 1970-an. Sebelum itu, tidak ada bukti fisik telah ditemukan sehubungan dengan Bait Allah itu sendiri - House of Yahweh atau Rumah Tuhan, seperti yang lebih tepat disebut (1-Raja 3:1, 6:1).

    
Kitab Perjanjian Lama 1 Raja-raja-6:2-38 memberikan rincian pembangunan, yang dihancurkan oleh Nebukadnezar dari Babel 400 tahun kemudian pada tahun 586 SM. Baru, Candi yang lebih besar dibangun di situs yang sama oleh Pangeran Zerubabel Yerusalem dari 535 SM, dan ini kemudian diperluas oleh Raja Seleukus, yang Hasmonaeans, dan akhirnya oleh Raja Herodes Agung pada abad ke-1 SM.

    
Dalam Antiquities dia 1-abad orang Yahudi, Flavius Josephus dijelaskan Yerusalem di era Injil, menyatakan bahwa Bait Suci Herodes adalah "luar biasa". Terletak dalam kompleks dari lebih 35 hektar, di mana Masjid El-Aqsa dan Dome of Rock sekarang berdiri, itu adalah konstruksi paling megah era - jauh lebih besar dari Acropolis di Athena. Namun, bangunan besar dihancurkan oleh pasukan Romawi Jenderal Titus di AD 70.

    
Di bawah Candi Raja Salomo
    
Painted di situs, 1870, untuk Illustrated London News

    
Arkeolog, bekerja dari tahun 1800-an tengah, membentuk fondasi Kuil kedua dan ketiga (orang-orang Zerubabel dan Herodes), tetapi tidak sampai 1973 bahwa usaha bersama yang dilakukan untuk mengungkapkan House pertama dari Tuhan - Kuil Raja Salomo. Proyek arkeologi dipimpin oleh Prof Benjamin Mazar dari Universitas Ibrani, dengan bidang arsitek Dr Leen Ritmeyer, yang menulis account bagi Biblical Archaeology Society.

    
Dengan bantuan catatan dari sejarawan Yunani, Strabo (64 SM - AD 21), tim bekerja di situs selama lima tahun, membuat penemuan baru, antara yang (pada tingkat saja terendah) adalah ketahanan asli Raja Salomo Bait , dengan dinding sangat berbeda dengan yang ada pada periode kemudian. Juga, dengan heran mereka, di lantai Mahakudus di atas adalah depresi persegi diukir (48 inci dengan 31 inci), di mana Tabut Perjanjian pernah berdiri (1-Raja 8:6).

    
Hal ini terungkap bahwa ketahanan Solomonid sebenarnya telah login beberapa waktu sebelumnya oleh Palestina Exploration Fund, tetapi informasi itu tidak menjadi dikenal secara luas. Namun diketahui bahwa, di dalam terowongan di bawah, sebuah ekspedisi militer Inggris telah membuat penemuan yang signifikan pada tahun 1894. Di sana, di kompleks labirin koridor melengkung dan tangki air, mereka menemukan sebuah salib Templar abad ke-12, pedang Templar rusak dan artefak terkait lainnya. Ini adalah sisa-sisa dari awal 1100-an, saat Ksatria Templar digali untuk Tabut dan harta dikeluarkan dari Yerusalem.

    
Ostracons dan Delima

    
Ada beberapa ditemukan artefak archaeologically dari era operasi Kuil pertama yang membuat referensi khusus untuk Salomo Rumah Tuhan. Salah satunya adalah dikenal sebagai Ostracon Temple, yang berada di Museum Israel, Yerusalem. Ini pecahan tembikar dari sekitar 800 SM (Yerusalem pada masa pemerintahan Raja Yoas dari Yehuda) dengan jelas menyebutkan, dalam bahasa Ibrani kuno, Kuil 'Bayit Yahweh' - Rumah Yerusalem Tuhan.

    
Rumah Tuhan Prasasti

    
Ostracon lain yang direferensikan oleh Biblical Archaeology Review (November / Desember 1997) adalah faktur pajak ditulis di tablet tanah liat sehubungan dengan berlangganan 3 shekel ke Rumah Tuhan. Itu datang dari banyak periode yang sama dengan Ostracon Temple, ketika orang-orang Yahudi berkewajiban untuk memberikan kontribusi terhadap Rumah infrastruktur Yahwe dengan cara pajak Temple.

    
Sebuah artefak yang menarik dari pemerintahan Salomo Bait Raja Uzia dari Yehuda, c. 750 SM, adalah gading kecil delima - vas berbentuk dengan leher panjang dan kelopak. Sekitar bahu nya, dalam script bahasa Ibrani awal, adalah tertulis "sumbangan Suci untuk para imam dari rumah TUHAN". Seperti Ostracon Bait Suci dan Tablet David, item ini juga diadakan di Museum Israel.

    
The Temple Delima

    
Tablet Yoas

    
Baru-baru ini, pers dan media telah membahas tablet lain tertulis yang ditemukan pada musim panas tahun 2000 di Gunung Bait Yerusalem. Menemukan dibuat oleh renovator Islam Perwalian Masjid El-Aqsa yang menempati bagian dari Haram el Sharif (Noble Sanctuary) situs, dan tablet ini adalah untuk mengetahui dipegang oleh seorang kolektor Israel.

    
Sebagian rusak, Arkosic Laut Mati tablet batu pasir ukuran 31 x 24 x 7 cm, dan membawa 15 baris teks yang ditulis dalam bahasa Ibrani kuno dengan unsur-unsur bahasa Aram dan Fenisia tua. Ini menggambarkan perbaikan Bait Salomo seperti yang diperintahkan oleh keturunan Salomo, Raja Yoas dari Yehuda pada abad ke 9 SM.

    
Yoas (Yoas) memerintah sekitar 839-799 SM dan, sesuai dengan ini, carbon-14 oleh Israel Institut Geologi, di bawah Shimon Ilani, telah dikonfirmasi prasasti sebagai berumur sekitar 2.800 tahun. Direktur Institute, Amos Bean, melaporkan bahwa mereka telah menemukan bintik-bintik emas dibakar ke batu, menunjukkan bahwa itu mungkin di Bait Allah ketika bangunan itu dihancurkan oleh Babel menyerang pada sekitar 586 SM.

    
Sejalan dengan teks Alkitab 2-Raja 12:1-6 dan 11-17, tablet menggambarkan bagaimana Raja memerintahkan para imam untuk "mengambil uang suci ... untuk membeli tambang batu dan kayu dan tembaga dan tenaga kerja untuk melaksanakan tugas dengan iman. "

    
Tablet Yoas

    
Kapal dan pokok anggur

    
Pada header grafis halaman ini adalah dua Yerusalem koin dari tahun SM jauh - satu yang dikenakan piala, dan yang lainnya sekelompok anggur.

    
Dari sekitar 3500 SM, sebuah piala (atau cangkir seremonial) adalah simbol keturunan dari Mesopotamia "Gra-al" - garis keturunan kerajaan kuno raja-raja dan ratu. Pada zaman Israel berikutnya, garis keluarga turun (yang menjadi dinasti House of David) diklasifikasikan sebagai The Vine. Mazmur 80:8 berbunyi, 'Engkau membawa keluar pohon anggur dari Mesir: Engkau mengusir bangsa-bangsa, dan ditanam itu. Dalam Injil Perjanjian Baru Yesus menyatakan Yohanes 15:1, "Akulah pokok anggur yang benar".

    
Oleh karena itu adalah bahwa, konsep Grail (Gra-al) keturunan adalah romantis dilambangkan sebagai kapal (perempuan) dan Vine (laki-laki). Buah anggur adalah anggur - dan dari anggur datang anggur. Dalam hal ini, unsur-unsur simbolis dari cawan dan anggur bertepatan, dan tradisi ini duduk di jantung Sakramen (Perjamuan Kudus) Ekaristi.

    
Dari Mesopotamia dan yayasan Israel adat istiadat Grail pindah ke arah barat ke kedua pengetahuan Pagan dan Kristen, tetapi meskipun ini menarik untuk dicatat bahwa setelah pemulihan zaman akhir Negara Israel pada tahun 1948, ini lambang tua Royal House Yehuda - dinasti Daud dan Salomo - dibawa kembali ke dalam bermain di koin baru diperkenalkan bahwa direplikasi asli mereka dalam waktu yang lama sebelumnya.


Among the city ruins, in front of the Gate were found the remnants of a large basalt stele - the largest fragment of which is 32 x 22 cm (12.5 x 8.75 inches). On this, thirteen lines of Aramaic script are partially preserved from around 825 BC, soon after the time of King Ahab of Israel and David's lineal descendant, King Jehosaphat of Judah.
The inscription was created by King Hazael of Aram-Damascus in about 825 BC, and it relates to his father, Hadad II, being victorious in battle against Jehosaphat (c. 860 BC). The most important aspect of the text, however, is that it specifically relates to Hadad defeating the "foot soldiers, charioteers and horsemen of the King of the House of David".
The much prized Tel Dan Inscription now resides in the Israel Museum, Jerusalem.
The House of David Inscription
The Moabite Stone
Another kingly stele boasting of conflict with the House of David is the Moabite Stone from about 860 BC. This 42 by 24 inch black basalt monument (107 x 61 cms) was discovered in 1868 at Dhiban, 20 miles east of the Dead Sea (across from En-gedi) and is now housed in The Louvre Museum, Paris. As reported in Time Magazine, December 1995, it is the most extensive inscription ever recovered from ancient Palestine.
The Moabite Stone contains 36 lines of Phoenician script which relate to the rebellion of King Mesha of Moab against King Jehoram of Israel and King Jehosaphat of Judah. This battle is recounted in the Old Testament 2-Kings 3:5-27.
The Mesha Stele of Moab
Discovered by the German missionary, F.A. Klein, the Moabite Stone caused another battle when the Berlin Museum expressed an interest in removing it to the West. The Jewish Encyclopedia relates that, on hearing of this, local Arabs heaved it out of the earth, lit fires around it and doused it with cold water so that it fragmented. Mediation was subsequently conducted by the French Consulate in Jerusalem, whose conservators restored the artifact, while offering enough money to purchase the House of David Moabite Stone and placate the inhabitants of Dhiban.
House of the Lord
The Jerusalem Temple of David's son, King Solomon, was something of an enigma until the 1970s. Prior to that, no physical evidence had been discovered in respect of the Temple itself - the House of Yahweh or House of the Lord, as it was more correctly called (1-Kings 3:1, 6:1).
The Old Testament book of 1-Kings 6:2-38 gives details of the construction, which was demolished by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon 400 years later in 586 BC. A new, larger Temple was built on the same site by Prince Zerubbabel of Jerusalem from 535 BC, and this was later extended by the Seleucid Kings, the Hasmonaeans, and finally by King Herod the Great in the 1st century BC.
In his 1st-century Antiquities of the Jews, Flavius Josephus described Jerusalem in the Gospel era, stating that the Herodian Temple was "incredible". Set within a complex of over 35 acres, where the El-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock now stand, it was the most magnificent construction of the era - far bigger than the Acropolis in Athens. However, the mighty edifice was demolished by the Roman legions of General Titus in AD 70.
Beneath King Solomon's Temple
Painted on site, 1870, for the London Illustrated News
Archaeologists, working from the middle 1800s, established the foundations of the second and third Temples (those of Zerubbabel and Herod), but it was not until 1973 that a concerted attempt was made to reveal the first House of the Lord - the Temple of King Solomon. The archaeological project was led by Prof. Benjamin Mazar of the Hebrew University, with field architect Dr. Leen Ritmeyer, who wrote up the account for the Biblical Archaeology Society.
With the aid of records from the Greek historian, Strabo (64 BC - AD 21), the team worked on site for five years, making many new discoveries, among which (at the lowest course level) were the original footings of King Solomon's Temple, with masonry quite different to that of the later periods. Also, to their astonishment, in the floor of the Holy of Holies above was the carved rectangular depression (48 inches by 31 inches), where the Ark of the Covenant once stood (1-Kings 8:6).
It transpired that the Solomonid footings had actually been logged some time previously by the Palestine Exploration Fund, but the information had not become widely known. It was known however that, in the tunnels beneath, a British military expedition had made a significant discovery in 1894. There, in the labyrinthine complex of arched corridors and cisterns, they discovered a 12th-century Templar cross, a broken Templar sword and other related artifacts. These were remnants from the early 1100s, when the Knights Templars excavated for the Ark and the secreted treasures of Jerusalem.
Ostracons and the Pomegranate
There are a few archaeologically discovered artifacts from the first Temple's operative era which make specific reference to Solomon's House of the Lord. One of these is known as the Temple Ostracon, which resides in the Israel Museum, Jerusalem. This pottery shard from about 800 BC (in the Jerusalem reign of King Joash of Judah) clearly mentions, in old Hebrew, the Temple of the 'Bayit Yahweh' - the Jerusalem House of the Lord.
House of the Lord Inscription
Another ostracon referenced by the Biblical Archaeology Review (November/December 1997) is a tax receipt written on a clay tablet in respect of a subscription of 3 shekels to the House of the Lord. It comes from much the same period as the Temple Ostracon, when the Jewish people were obliged to contribute towards the House of Yahweh's infrastructure by way of a Temple tax.
A particularly interesting artifact from the Solomon Temple reign of King Uzziah of Judah, c. 750 BC, is a small ivory pomegranate - vase shaped with a long neck and petals. Around its shoulder, in an early Hebrew script, is inscribed "Sacred donation for the priests of the House of the Lord ". Like the Temple Ostracon and the David Tablet, this item is also held at the Israel Museum.
The Temple Pomegranate
The Joash Tablet
Recently, the press and media have been discussing another inscribed tablet that was discovered in the summer of 2000 at Jerusalem's Temple Mount. The find was made by Islamic Trust renovators of the El-Aqsa mosque which occupies part of the Haram el Sharif (Noble Sanctuary) site, and the tablet is know held by an Israeli collector.


Partially broken, the Arkosic Dead Sea sandstone tablet measures 31 x 24 x 7 cms, and carries 15 lines of text written in ancient Hebrew with elements of Aramaic and old Phoenician. It describes repairs to Solomon's Temple as ordered by Solomon's descendant, King Joash of Judah in the 9th century BC.


Joash (Jehoash) reigned about 839-799 BC and, in accord with this, carbon-14 dating by Israel's Geological Institute, under Shimon Ilani, has authenticated the inscription as being around 2,800 years old. The Institute's director, Amos Bean, reported that they had discovered flecks of gold burnt into the stone, indicating that it was probably in the Temple when the building was destroyed by invading Babylonians in about 586 BC.


In line with the Bible text of 2-Kings 12:1-6 and 11-17, the tablet describes how the King instructed the priests to "take holy money … to buy quarry stones and timber and copper and labour to carry out the duty with faith."




The Joash Tablet

The Vessel and the Vine
In the header graphic of this page are two Jerusalem coins from the distant BC years - one which bears a chalice, and the other a bunch of grapes.
From around 3500 BC, a chalice (or ceremonial cup) was the hereditary symbol of the Mesopotamian "Gra-al" - the royal bloodline of the ancient kings and queens. In subsequent Israelite times, the descending family line (which became the dynasty of the House of David) was classified as The Vine. Psalm 80:8 reads, 'Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt: thou hast cast out the heathen, and planted it'. In the New Testament Gospel of John 15:1 Jesus states, "I am the true vine".
Hence it was that, the concept of the Grail (Gra-al) bloodline was romantically symbolized as the Vessel (female) and the Vine (male). The fruit of the vine is the grape - and from the grape comes wine. In this respect, the symbolic elements of the chalice and the vine coincide, and this tradition sits at the very heart of the Eucharist (Holy Communion) sacrament.
From Mesopotamian and Israelite foundations the Grail customs moved westwards into both Pagan and Christian lore, but notwithstanding this it is interesting to note that following the latter-day reinstatement of the State of Israel in 1948, these old emblems of the Royal House of Judah - the dynasty of David and Solomon - were brought back into play on newly introduced coins that replicated their originals in times long before.
Grail design coins of modern Israel
     Grail desain koin Israel modern


 "Rumah Daud" menunjukkan bahwa prasasti sebenarnya oleh para arkeolog untuk menjelaskan itu pergi. Namun, kalimat itu muncul 25 kali dalam PL dan sekali dalam PB membiarkan kita tahu itu baik digunakan katakan. Dan presenter program sendiri datang untuk menjadi yakin bahwa sebuah altar besar di Gunung Ebal di Samaria adalah salah satu yang telah dibangun di sana Yosua (Yosua 8:30). Memang itu terbuat dari "batu unhewn" (v.31), dan data arkeologi yang ditemukan di sekitar altar ini tampaknya sangat cocok bahwa ini memang sebuah situs Israel kuno pengorbanan.
Daud sendiri enggan diberikan sebuah eksistensi yang riil, sebagian besar didasarkan pada bukti-bukti Dan Katakan, tapi sekarang karena hanya beberapa raja yang sangat kecil atas sebagian kecil dari Israel. Salomo Namun, hampir setiap membantah eksistensi nyata sama sekali. Hanya akhir-akhir ini mulai arkeolog untuk mengungkap puncak Beritahu Rumeida atas mana sebuah biara Salib dibangun di atas lokasi tempat tinggal penguasa dari kota kuno. David memerintah dari Hebron selama 7 ½ tahun sebelum ia pindah pemerintahannya ke Yerusalem [5] Ironisnya adalah bahwa, seperti dengan Daud, sehingga dengan Salomo, ada referensi, kuno non-alkitabiah untuk nya "House";. Tapi karena ditemukan di Mesir (el-Amarna) - yang sejarahnya belum benar disinkronkan dengan Israel - tidak dapat diidentifikasi, seperti dapat Daud, untuk apa sebenarnya. Saya merujuk pada "Bit Šulmãni" referensi dalam arsip Akhnaton firaun's (surat 74 & 290), frase yang diterjemahkan sebagai "Rumah Sulman" (dan paling masuk akal, terutama dalam konteks: "House of Solomon").
Katakan El-Amarna
El-Amarna relevan surat benar-benar ditulis untuk Akhnaton oleh raja Yerusalem kontemporer tidak kurang - yang paling meyakinkan diidentifikasi oleh revisionis sebagai Yoram Yehuda pertengahan C9th SM - yang menulis (surat 290): "... ibukota negara Yerusalem - namanya adalah Bit Šulmãni - kota raja, telah memisahkan diri ".
Tetapi dengan Akhnaton konvensional tanggal hampir setengah milenium sebelum Salomo, tidak mungkin ada pemikiran bahwa dua huruf bisa benar-benar berisi referensi bahwa raja besar Yerusalem.
Salah satu arkeolog diwawancarai dalam program TV di bawah diskusi, membandingkan gambaran Alkitab tentang kerajaan yang luas Daud dengan apa yang dia yakini sebagai kelangkaan hampir total bukti historis-arkeologi untuk raja, berseru bahwa jika Daud adalah sebagai besar sebagai Alkitab menggambarkan dia sebagai maka kita harus berharap referensi beberapa dokumen sejarah dia di luar Israel, misalnya "oleh orang Mesir dan Asyur."
Itu adalah komentar yang cukup adil. Dan respon saya ke dalamnya adalah bahwa ada bukti seperti bagi Daud dalam kelimpahan, jika satu-satunya yang tahu di mana mencarinya.
Mulia era Daud dan Salomo tidak akan ditemukan di mana Finkelstein terus mencari mereka, namun pada strata Zaman Besi yang paling miskin, tetapi lebih pada Zaman Perunggu Akhir. Sudah dalam revisi ini kita telah melihat bahwa peradaban Perunggu Akhir Salomo, raja Israel meluap seperti banjir ke Mesir dan Ethiopia. Sama seperti dahulu, ketika sungai kuno Eden (situs Yerusalem;. Cf Yehezkiel 28:12-17) "aliran [ed] keluar" dan menyembur ke Mesir sebagai Pishon (bagian dari Sungai Nil yang meliputi emas menghasilkan daerah Koptos, Edfu, dan Ombos) dan ke dalam dan sekitar Cush (Ethiopia) sebagai Gihon (Nubia Nil, lihat Peta), dan memberi minum timur sebagai Tigris dan Efrat (Kejadian 2:10-14), demikian pula Israel milik Daud dan melimpah waktu Salomo menjadi sumber peradaban kebijaksanaan untuk seluruh dunia kuno. "Dengan demikian Raja Salomo unggul semua raja bumi di kekayaan dan hikmat. Seluruh bumi mencari kehadiran Salomo untuk mendengar hikmat, yang Allah telah dimasukkan ke dalam pikirannya" (1.Kings 10:23-24).
Dan yang kontemporer ini kebijaksanaan-mencari "raja"?
Mereka adalah orang-orang besar memang. Saya berbicara secara historis di sini. revisi saya telah menetapkan Salomo pada saat penguasa terkenal seperti:

1 2 3 Hammurabi Babel; IARIM-LIM (yaitu, Hiram), Said menjadi anak Abibaal (ca. 1000 SM), dari Siro-Fenisia; Hatshepsut (Alkitab Ratu Sheba) Mesir / Ethiopia.

Salomo sendiri adalah Solon besar cerita rakyat Yunani (disesuaikan oleh orang Yunani dari bangsa Yahudi; undang-undang Solon sedang ditemukan namun sebagian besar Yahudi).
Pemerintahan gemilang Hammurabi, sebuah DAS benar-benar dalam sejarah Mesopotamia, mencerminkan pengaruh Solomonik dalam setiap segi nya (sosio-ekonomi, hukum, arsitektur agama,) [0010], seperti halnya pemerintahan Hatshepsut atas Mesir / Ethiopia. Sama seperti Marduk menjadi dewa tertinggi di Babel pada saat itu, sehingga tidak Hatshepsut sehingga menghormati dewa-nya, Amun.
Salomo dikatakan telah punya musuh tertentu, selain dari Yerobeam, bangkit di bagian, yang terakhir dekaden pemerintahannya: yaitu, Hadad, orang Edom dan Rezin, seorang Suriah (1.Kings 11:14, 23). Rezin saya sebelumnya diidentifikasi dengan Zimri-Lim dari Mari. Sekarang calon yang mungkin untuk Hadad adalah Ishkhi-Adad of Qatna, sekutu David arch-rival, Shamsi-Adad I (Hadadezer Alkitab), dan yang terus sebagai kekuatan untuk beberapa waktu setelah kematian yang terakhir, meskipun "akhir Ishkhi s-Adad pemerintahan 'masih jelas "[0020]:
Kedua negara Aleppo dan Qatna tampaknya telah dikembangkan hampir bersamaan. Kami lebih banyak informasi mengenai sejarah kedua pada masa pemerintahan Shamsi-Adad karena ia adalah sekutu Ishkhi-Adad, yang menduduki takhta Qatna pada waktu itu. Susunan antara kedua raja telah ditutup oleh sebuah pernikahan, Iasmakh-Adad, maka raja muda dari Mari, memiliki anak perempuan menikah Ishkhi-Adad's. Kerjasama adalah politik dan militer serta ekonomi. Ada gerakan sering pasukan antara Mari dan Qatna, dan tampaknya kemungkinan bahwa detasemen dari Mari ditempatkan di kota Suriah. Kehadiran tentara asing di Qatna tampaknya tidak menunjukkan hubungan ketergantungan, untuk Ishkhi-Adad sendiri bersikeras mereka sedang dikirim, dan mengajak anaknya mertua untuk ambil bagian dalam sebuah ekspedisi yang tampaknya akan menghasilkan beberapa barang rampasan . Itu Shamsi-Adad yang telah mengambil langkah pertama menuju pernikahan, menekankan kepada anaknya bahwa rumah Qatna memiliki 'nama'. Ia juga dibahas pada istilah level dengan Ishkhi-Adad, yang ia sebut saudaranya.
Itu memang Hadad akan memiliki 'nama', atau akan datang telah memiliki 'nama', adalah jelas dari apa yang kita ketahui-nya drama-dikemas kehidupan awal. Hadad adalah "rumah kerajaan Edom", sebuah negara dari mana ia harus melarikan diri sebagai "seorang anak muda", dengan pengikutnya, ketika Daud Umum Yoab (yang sepupunya adalah komandan Amasis Absalom, 2.Sam 17:25. ), sistematis, selama periode enam bulan membunuh setiap laki-laki di Edom (1.Kings 11:14-16). Pangeran berhasil melarikan diri ke Mesir, kepada Firaun (ay 18-20), yang:
... Memberinya rumah, dia ditugaskan penyisihan makanan, dan memberinya tanah. Hadad mendapat kasih karunia yang besar di hadapan Firaun, sehingga ia memberinya adiknya iparnya untuk istri, adik Ratu Tahpenes.
Adik Tahpenes melahirkan olehnya untuk Genubath anaknya, yang Tahpenes disapih di rumah Firaun; Genubath berada di rumah Firaun di antara anak-anak Firaun.
Immanuel Velikovsky sangat mungkin juga telah menemukan, ketika ia mengaku, referensi baik Ratu Tahpenes dan Genubath dalam catatan Mesir, tepat spasi sesuai dengan revisi kronologis nya. Jadi Velikovsky menulis [0030]:

    
Para Firaun [yang menerima muda Hadad] harus sudah Ahmose. Di antara ratu nya pasti satu dengan nama Tahpenes. Kami buka register dari ratu Mesir untuk melihat apakah Ahmose firaun memiliki seorang ratu dengan nama ini. Namanya sebenarnya dilestarikan dan membaca Tanethap, Tenthape, atau, mungkin, Tahpenes.

    
... Hadad telah kembali ke Edom [sic] pada zaman Salomo, setelah kematian Yoab [32] Sejak saat itu sekitar empat puluh tahun itu. Berlalu. Genubath, anaknya, sekarang pengikut raja Edom, ia tinggal baik di Edom atau di Mesir.

    
Upeti dari tanah ini, juga harus telah dikirim ke mahkota Mesir, tidak ada perlu mengirim sebuah ekspedisi untuk menaklukkan Edom. Ketika Thutmose III kembali dari salah satu kunjungan inspeksi ke Palestina ia menemukan di upeti Mesir dibawa oleh kurir dari tanah "Genubatye", yang tidak harus ditaklukkan oleh pasukan ekspedisi.

    
"Ketika keagungan-Nya tiba di Mesir para utusan dari Genubatye datang membawa upeti mereka."

    
Ini terdiri dari mur, "negro penunggu", banteng, betis, selain kapal sarat dengan gading, hitam dan kulit dari panther.

    
Siapa orang-orang dari Genubatye? Hampir tidak menduga telah dibuat berkenaan dengan nama ini aneh. Orang-orang Genubatye adalah orang Genubath, raja mereka, kontemporer Rehabeam.
Dan terima kasih kepada rekonstruksi dinasti ke-18 Mesir Velikovsky, kita bisa juga tahu bahwa Saul dari Israel sezaman dengan Ahmose firaun, dan bahwa Israel sebenarnya bersekutu dengan orang Mesir, sebuah aliansi ditempa dalam perjuangan bersama mereka melawan / Amu membenci orang Amalek.
Dengan pemikiran ini, saya sebelumnya menyarankan bahwa kekalahan berkumandang Daud koalisi Syria Hadadezer (misalnya 2.Samuel 8:3-6) akan dicapai dengan dukungan militer Mesir, ini yang terakhir adalah faktor yang akan menjadi praktik umum (setidaknya dalam teori) selama fase berikutnya dari dinasti 18 (el-Amarna).
Tapi tampak bahwa ada jauh lebih dari sekedar serikat militer antara Israel dan Palestina. Mesir sebenarnya mulai akan dibanjiri oleh peradaban baru Israel, bersemangat. Bagaimana ini bisa terjadi pada suatu bangsa dikenal sangat konservatif, kepulauan dan tertutup untuk berubah?
Tanda-tanda bahwa Raja Saul Mendorong Israel Firaun Amenhotep I.
Ada, saya menemukan, beberapa tanda-tanda mendorong awal untuk Amenhotep I sebagai raja Saul. Sebagai contoh:
1. Amenhotep Aku tidak berhubungan dengan Ahmose, namun menikah dengan putrinya, Ah-hotep. Sekarang, luar biasa, Saul memiliki ayah mertua yang disebut Ahimaas, yang tampaknya menjadi setara Ibrani yang tepat dari nama Mesir, Ahmose; Saul memiliki anak perempuan menikah Ahimaas's, Ahinoam (1 Samuel 14:50). 2. Kedua, tes DNA telah menunjukkan bahwa Amenhotep saya tidak terkait dengan Thutmose I; sama seperti Daud tidak berhubungan dengan Saul. 3. Ketiga, Amenhotep I dan Thutmose aku mungkin telah berbagi co-kabupaten; sama seperti Saul dan Daud adalah dicampuradukkan bersama (meskipun biasanya dalam memanfaatkan tidak nyaman, sebagai musuh) dalam kabupaten-co. Meskipun tanda-tanda awal mendorong, saya anggap saya Amenhotep persamaan = Saul menjadi sangat tentatif ketika saya menulis artikel saya pada skenario dinasti baru 18, berjudul "The House of David", di mana saya mengusulkan bahwa dinasti ke-18 Thutmoside Mesir adalah sebenarnya, dalam asal-usulnya, seorang keturunan Daud dinasti Israel.
Upacara penobatan (Untuk lebih lanjut klik sini)
Selain itu, meluap dari Israel pergi ke jantung masalah: untuk upacara penobatan. Prosedur sangat seremonial, dalam tiga tahap, bahwa Daud telah digunakan untuk penobatan putranya yang dipilih, Salomo, adalah prosedur yang digunakan oleh Thutmose I (penerus Amenhotep I) dalam penobatan putri mantan, Hatshepsut.
Saya telah mengikuti J. Baikie untuk teks Mesir di kolom kanan bawah [0040]:

David Thutmose Saya Majelis dipanggil Majelis dipanggil "David", kita diberitahu, "berkumpul di Yerusalem semua pejabat suku, petugas dari divisi yang melayani raja, para komandan ribuan, ... ratusan, para pelayan semua properti ... dan semua prajurit berpengalaman "(I Tawarikh 28:1). Demikian juga dalam kasus Hatshepsut muda, ayahnya, Thutmose aku [0050 ]:"... menyebabkan bahwa ada dibawa kepadanya pejabat raja, para bangsawan, para sahabat, para petugas pengadilan, dan kepala rakyat. " Penguasa Masa Depan Disajikan Penguasa Masa Depan Disajikan Selanjutnya, David disajikan putranya, Salomo, ke perakitan sebagai penggantinya, mengatakan :'... dari semua anak saya ... Tuhan ... telah memilih anakku Salomo untuk duduk di atas takhta kerajaan Tuhan, atas Israel. Dia berkata kepadaku, 'Ini adalah anakmu Salomo .... Aku telah memilih dia untuk menjadi anak-Ku, dan Aku akan menjadi Bapa-Nya '. " (Ay. 5-6). Begitu juga Firaun hadir putrinya ke perakitan Agustus [0060]: "Said Mulia-Nya kepada mereka:" Ini anak saya ... Hatshepsut .... Saya telah menunjuk dia, dia adalah pengganti saya, dia itu pasti yang akan duduk . di kursi saya yang luar biasa [takhta] Dia akan perintah orang di setiap tempat istana, ia itu yang akan menuntun Anda ...'." Keputusan Majelis Majelis mencakup mencakup Keputusan Raja Raja Rakitan Israel setuju sepenuh hati dengan keputusan David: "Dan semua jemaat diberkati Tuhan ... dan menundukkan kepala mereka, dan menyembah Tuhan, dan melakukan sembah kepada raja .... Dan mereka makan dan minum di hadapan Tuhan pada hari itu dengan sukacita yang besar "(29:20, 22). Demikian pula, dalam kasus para pejabat Mesir [0070]: "Mereka mencium bumi di kakinya, ketika kata kerajaan jatuh di antara mereka .... Mereka pergi ke luar, mulut mereka bersukacita, mereka menerbitkan proklamasi-Nya kepada mereka."


Mungkin tidak satu pernah membayangkan bahwa Mesir, jadi mendalam dalam upacara dan prosedur ibadat selama dinasti begitu banyak dan berabad-abad akan sekarang memiliki sistem pengadilan sendiri diganggu gugat nya? Betapa besar oleh karena itu harus telah menjadi Israel waktu Daud bahwa bahkan prosedur upacara mengalir ke Mesir?
Agama Parallels
Mungkin bahkan lebih luar biasa masih adalah bahwa agama Israel itu meluap ke Mesir. Bahwa Hatshepsut adalah re-inventing Karnak sebagai Mesir Yerusalem ini dibuktikan dengan psalmery salah lagi Daud bahwa ia telah menulis di dasar salah satu obelisk-nya. sarjana konvensional, Baikie, baik catatan itu dan kronologis salah menafsirkan itu [0080]:
Dan kemudian, dalam bahasa yang mungkin datang langsung dari Kitab Mazmur, meskipun milik sebuah abad usia sebelum [sic] yang pertama dari Mazmur ini ditulis, ia melanjutkan:

Aku melakukannya di bawah perintah [Allah]; dialah yang membawa saya. "Namun Tuhan akan perintah kasih sayang-Nya di siang hari ... Ajarkan aku jalan-Mu, oh Tuhan, dan tuntunlah aku di jalan yang biasa ... dia menuntun aku ..." Ps. 42:8, 27:11; 23:02. Aku hamil tidak bekerja tanpa ia lakukan, dialah yang memberi saya arah. "... Ketika raja duduk di rumahnya, dan Tuhan memberinya istirahat bulat tentang dirinya dari semua musuh ... haruslah engkau Nya saya membangun sebuah rumah ..." 2.Sam. 7:1,5. "Dia (anak Daud) akan membangun rumah bagi nama saya ..." 2.Sam. 07:13 Aku tidur bukan karena bait suci-Nya, aku tidak bersalah dari apa yang ia diperintahkan. "Orang fasik telah meletakkan suatu jerat bagi saya: tapi aku bersalah bukan dari ajaran-Mu." Mazmur 119:110.
Hati saya bijaksana sebelum ayah saya, saya masuk ke dalam urusan hatinya. "Engkau membuktikan hatiku, engkau mengunjungi saya di malam hari ... Siapa yang begitu bijaksana, dan akan mengamati hal-hal ini, bahkan mereka harus memahami cinta kasih Tuhan." Ps. 17:3; 107:43. "Sebab ia tidak akan banyak mengingat hari-hari hidupnya;. Karena Allah answereth dia di sukacita hatinya" Pengk. 5:20. Aku berbalik tidak kembali saya di Kota All-Tuhan, tetapi berpaling ke wajah. "Hati kami tidak berbalik kembali, tidak ada langkah-langkah kita menurun dari cara-Mu ... wajah-Mu, o Tuhan, akan saya cari." Ps. 44:18; 27:8. Saya tahu bahwa Karnak adalah tempat tinggal Allah di bumi .... James dada, Rekaman Mesir, Vol. II, Sec. 316; p. 131. "Saya telah pasti engkau membangun sebuah rumah untuk dihuni, tempat menetap bagimu tinggal di dalam selamanya ... Tuhan ... Tuhan dapat tinggal di Yerusalem selamanya.." 1.Kings 8:13; 1.Chronicles 23:25.
Baikie terus [0090]:

    
Semangat tidur dari ratu untuk kemuliaan kuil dewa, dan jaminan nya kesucian tak terkatakan Karnak sebagai tempat-tinggal ilahi, menemukan ekspresi hampir di kata-kata yang digunakan pemazmur untuk menyatakan rasa kewajiban terhadap tempat kediaman Allah Israel, dan kepastian tentang kesucian Sion sebagai tempat yang taat TUHAN: "Sesungguhnya aku tidak akan datang ke dalam Kemah rumah saya, tidak naik ke tempat tidur saya, saya tidak akan memberikan tidur mataku , atau tidur untuk kelopak mata saya Sampai aku menemukan tempat bagi Tuhan, suatu tempat tinggal bagi Allah yang perkasa Yakub - Untuk Tuhan telah memilih Sion,.. ia telah dikehendaki huni nya ini perhentian-Ku untuk selama-lamanya; di sini akan Aku diam, karena aku telah menginginkannya "Mazmur 132:3-4, 13-14; 2.Samuel 7:5-6
Seperti tercantum dalam artikel sebelumnya, tulisan sendiri bukan hanya Daud [0095], tapi bahkan gambar dari Taurat pra-Daud (misalnya Kejadian) - dan dari tulisan hikmat Salomo dan puisi cintanya, Kidung Agung - yang digunakan oleh Hatshepsut dalam prasasti-nya .
Konstruksi Parallels
Hatshepsut bahkan membangun kuil megah nya di Deir el-Bahari sepanjang garis Solomonik - tidak mengherankan sejak Salomo sendiri, sebagai Senenmut - adalah arsitek kepala nya. Pengaruh Fenisia ini menampilkan candi yang indah (bdk. Mariette) pasti akan menjadi karya Hiram's Fenisia, sekutu Salomo, yang antara master pengrajin untuk membangun Bait Allah di Yerusalem (1.Kings 5:7-18).
Kovenan, Tabut
Hatshepsut bahkan akan mempekerjakan seorang imam tinggi dalam infrastruktur agamanya.
Sekarang kantor-kantor pendeta tinggi, sekretaris dan perekam (pemberita) yang didirikan oleh David di Israel (2.Samuel 8:16-17 Cf 1.Kings 4:2-3..), Dua terakhir sebenarnya dianggap oleh beberapa telah dipinjam dari Mesir [0100]. Tapi lebih mungkin sekarang urutan yang benar pengaruh adalah bahwa menjadi mendirikan kantor Mesir hanya setelah terlebih dahulu telah dipinjam dari Daud Israel.
Lebih jauh lagi, kita tidak menemukan pada saat Hatshepsut perhatian lebih besar diberikan kepada yang terbesar dari semua dewa, Amun, dan untuk barque Nya (bahtera) Kapal-seperti yang dilakukan oleh para imam bantalan sekitar kutub pada bahu mereka? Jadi Joyce Tyldesley [0110]:

    
Kapel Merah, sekarang lebih umum dikenal dengan nama Prancis atas Chapelle Rouge, merupakan tempat suci besar kuarsit merah diberkahi oleh Hatshepsut ke rumah barque semua-penting dari Amin. barque Amin, atau tongkang, yang dikenal sebagai Userhat-Amin (Mighty dari haluan yang Amin), adalah sebuah perahu kecil kayu disepuh bantalan kuil tertutup yang digunakan untuk melindungi patung dewa dari masyarakat pandangan [0115]. Ketika Amin , pada hari-hari suci yang juga hari libur, meninggalkan tempat kudus privasi untuk proses melalui jalan-jalan di Thebes, dia berlayar dalam gaya tersembunyi dalam kabin-kuil perahunya yang dilakukan, didukung oleh tiang kayu, di bahu para imam itu. Ketika Amin tidak bepergian barque yang beristirahat di tempat kudus sendiri atau kuil.

    
The barque suci selalu memainkan peran kecil dalam ritual agama Mesir, tetapi selama Kerajaan Baru awal telah menjadi bagian yang semakin penting dari teologi, dan kuil yang paling sekarang memberikan keunggulan besar untuk tempat kudus barque.
Itu sangat mengingatkan salah satu Tabut Perjanjian, usia besar, sebelum yang Daud menari (2.Samuel 6:14). Daud telah kembali menekankan urutan yang Tabut menakjubkan adalah dibawa oleh "siapa pun kecuali orang-orang Lewi" (1.Chronicles 15:2). Aspek The 'perahu' bahkan mungkin mendengar kembali ke waktu ketika bayi Musa (Horus sedikit dalam versi Mesir) telah tertutup oleh ibunya di sebuah bahtera (teba) dan mengapung di sungai (Keluaran 2:3).
Baik Israel dan versi Mesir tabut itu dogmatis. Kedua idealnya berangkat sebelum pasukan mereka ke dalam pertempuran (1.Samuel 14:18). Thutmose III (Alkitab "Sisak") akan, setelah kematian Hatshepsut, memiliki tabut Amun dilanjutkan di depan tentara sendiri atas menakutkan Aruna (Araunah) lulus saat ia marches ke penaklukan Yerusalem dan menjarah dari Bait Suci yang harta.
Hal ini terjadi pada tahun kelima anak Salomo, Rehabeam (1.Kings 14:25).
Pengaruh Daud atas Mesir begitu kuat saat ini bahwa kita belum mungkin perlu mengambil kesimpulan kita lebih dalam daripada yang telah kita lakukan sejauh ini. Daud tidak mungkin hanya telah mempengaruhi Thutmose saya dalam proses nya.
David sebenarnya mungkin telah Thutmose juga!
Dengan hasil ini akan menjadi bahwa Mesir masih tetap konservatif mereka, diri pulau, melakukan apa yang mereka lakukan selama berabad-abad. Tapi Israel juga meluap atas tanah. Kita mungkin memiliki sini bentrokan dua budaya yang sama sekali berbeda. agak mirip (dan saya tidak ingin mendorong analogi terlalu jauh) dengan situasi yang berlaku untuk waktu dengan ko-eksistensi di Meksiko dari Spanyol seperti perang dan pembangunan piramida Aztec Sesuatu. Yang pertama disiapkan untuk berhenti pada apa-apa untuk memaksakan agama mereka kepada penduduk tanah itu. Yang terakhir dilanjutkan dengan ritual mereka dan menulis ulang fenomena Spanyol tak bisa dijelaskan sesuai dengan tradisi agama mereka sendiri dan cerita rakyat.
Beberapa pertanyaan segera muncul dari skenario baru:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Jika Daud benar-benar Thutmose saya, mana yang Hatshepsut pergi, seharusnya anak perempuan Thutmose I? Apakah hubungan antara penobatan Salomo dan Hatshepsut? Apakah David benar-benar menumpuk juga Thutmose I, asal-bijaksana, karir-bijaksana, usia-bijaksana? Apakah David menaklukkan dan memperbudak Mesir? Bagaimana dengan Mesir khas (dan un-David-suka) pagan perangkap yang terkait dengan Thutmose I sebagai dengan fir'aun lain?
Ini adalah pertanyaan yang satu sekarang harus mulai untuk menjawab.
Pertanyaan tentang Thutmose Aku akan ditangani pertama, dalam I, dan mereka Hatshepsut tentang akan ditangani di II.
Daud sebagai "alkitabiah Firaun
Siapa firaun `'dari 9:16 1.Kings yang telah dipecat Gezer sebagai mas kawin untuk putrinya untuk menikah Salomo? Velikovsky telah memilih untuk Thutmose I, tanpa dia harus berusaha untuk menjadikan hubungan antara firaun dan raja Daud. Metzler juga telah mengidentifikasi ini "firaun" alkitabiah dengan Thutmose I, tetapi dengan aspek yang jauh lebih menarik untuk itu bahwa Thutmose aku Daud [0120] Sayangnya, meskipun, Metzler tampaknya telah bingung kampanye dini oleh David (1.Samuel 27.: 8,9), ketika Saul masih hidup, dengan kisah Alkitab tentang penaklukan Gezer, jelas terjadi setelah kematian Saul [123]:
[Metzler] "Karena Raja Daud-Thutmosis saya juga ayah dari Ratu Hatshepsut-Sheba, Raja Salomo mengacu di Song nya Agung (4:10 et passim) sebagai Achoti` kakak Kallah saya, pasangan saya! ". Ini menjelaskan juga, bagaimana mungkin bahwa kota Gezer, yang Raja Daud telah menaklukkan, diberikan kepada Raja Salomo sebagai mahar dari `putri Firaun '. Ketika kota Gezer dihancurkan oleh David Achinoam sudah istrinya, tapi dia belum Raja Yehuda dan Israel, karena Raja Saul masih hidup [sic] (1.Samuel 27, 3-11). Oleh sebab itu secara teknis benar bahwa kota ini ditaklukkan oleh firaun (1.Kings 9, 16) , karena ia adalah putri Firaun yang membuatnya firaun karena perkawinan. "
"Ketika Daud mengalahkan Gezer, ia membunuh semua penghuninya meninggalkan` baik manusia maupun wanita hidup '(1.Samuel 27, 8 dan 9) Demikian pula,. Para firaun, yang putri Raja Salomo menikah, dilaporkan telah `sudah naik, dan diambil Gezer, dan membakarnya dengan api, dan dibunuh orang Kanaan yang tinggal di kota '(1.Kings 9, 16). Sejak itu dibangun kembali dan hanya dipindahkan oleh Raja Salomo (1.Kings 9, 15), Raja Daud- Thutmosis Aku harus menjadi firaun, yang menyerahkan kepadanya sebagai hadiah pernikahan. Tidak ada ruang bagi invasi asing menjelang akhir pemerintahan Raja Daud, karena `Tuhan telah memberinya bulat beristirahat tentang dari semua musuh-Nya '(2 Samuel 7, 1).. Selain itu, tidak masuk akal untuk menaklukkan kota hanya untuk memberikannya, seperti ditunjukkan oleh Abraham Malamat. [130]
I. Thutmose saya sebagai Daud (Lagi)
Untuk menghadapi 3 titik pertama, tentang apakah David tumpukan dengan baik sebagai Thutmose I, kita tahu bahwa Daud pada dasarnya - dalam hal karir - seorang militer. Dan itu hanya apa yang kita temukan dengan Thutmose I. Dia, ketika ia datang ke tahta, "seorang jenderal setengah baya" [0140], "dengan karir yang sukses di belakangnya" [0150]. Memang ia dianggap dengan III Thutmose besar sebagai antara yang paling efektif firaun militer seluruh Mesir.
putra Thutmose I adalah orang-orang militer juga, dan perlu dicatat bahwa Senenmut - yang saya diidentifikasi sebagai anak Daud Sulaiman di Mesir - diperkirakan telah memulai karirnya di tentara [0160]. Ini adalah apa yang harapkan dengan anak David.
Salah satu putra Thutmose I sebenarnya adalah par excellence seorang militer [0170]:

    
Amenmose, si anak bungsu tapi mungkin lagi-tinggal, diberi judul 'Great Panglima Angkatan Darat', peran tradisional sekarang dialokasikan untuk putra mahkota. keberanian fisik telah menjadi penting Kerajaan Baru atribut kerajaan dan Amenmose jelas diharapkan dapat menikmati gaya hidup elite lezat dari laki-laki. Sebuah stela patah mengatakan kepada kita bahwa, selama tahun masa pemerintahan ayahnya 4, Amenmose adalah satwa liar sudah berburu di gurun Giza dekat Sphinx Agung, taman bermain favorit para pangeran kerajaan.
Asal Thutmose I adalah tidak benar diketahui, hanya menebak di [0180]:

    
... pewaris baru untuk takhta mungkin telah menjadi keturunan cabang jaminan dari keluarga kerajaan. Tuthmosis sendiri, bagaimanapun, membuat tidak ada klaim untuk darah bangsawan. Ayahnya tidak pernah bernama dan tetap menjadi orang yang misteri, meskipun tampaknya aman untuk mengasumsikan bahwa ia telah lahir mulia atau kerajaan.
Kita tahu siapa ayah Daud adalah: Isai, orang Betlehem (1.Samuel 16:1), kakek buyutnya adalah Boas dengan Ruth istri dan kakeknya Obed. Tapi ini Jesse juga tetap, seperti ayah Thutmose I, "seorang pria misteri"; dirinya "kelahiran mulia" berasal dari kenyataan bahwa ia berasal dari suku kerajaan Yehuda.
Raja Saul
Sementara J. Tyldesley panggilan Thutmose I "pewaris baru ke takhta", yang lain telah mempertimbangkan untuk menjadi lebih kasus - seperti dengan Ay dan pejabat non-ditunjuk lainnya pengaruh besar - orang yang telah menjadi terlalu kuat untuk mahkota Mesir mengabaikan lagi.
Sekarang ini justru situasi yang telah mulai berkembang antara Saul dan Daud. Dan itu akan mengakibatkan kecemburuan patologis pada bagian Saul. Ketika Saul dan Daud pulang dari mengalahkan orang Filistin, kita belajar (1.Samuel 18:6-9):

    
"... Para wanita keluar dari semua kota Israel, bernyanyi dan menari ... Dan perempuan-perempuan bernyanyi satu sama lain karena mereka dibuat gembira:

    
'Saul telah membunuh ribuan nya,
    
Dan Daud sepuluh ribu nya '. "
Saul sangat marah, karena ini mengatakan senang kepadanya. Dia berkata, 'Mereka telah dianggap berasal dari sepuluh ribu Daud, dan bagiku mereka telah dianggap berasal dari ribuan, apa lagi yang bisa ia punya tapi kerajaan? " Jadi Saul bermata Daud dari hari itu. "
Apakah Saul suka atau tidak - dan ia pasti tidak menyukainya - fakta adalah bahwa Daud telah menjadi co-penguasa dengan dia. Ada bahkan lebih dari itu. Samuel dihormati sebenarnya sudah menolak Saul sebagai raja dan telah mengurapi Daud anak Isai di tempatnya. (Bandingkan 1.Samuel 15:28 & 6:13).
Situasi ini memiliki dua raja yang kuat dicampuradukkan bersama-sama, dalam memanfaatkan tidak nyaman, tercermin, saya percaya, dalam situasi pada saat di Mesir, yang menyebabkan aku bertanya-tanya apakah Amenhotep aku mungkin tidak Saul sendiri, co-memerintah dengan Thutmose saya sebagai Daud . Tyldesley mengatakan paling sedikit bukti yang mungkin bagi rekan-kabupaten [0190]:

    
Ada beberapa bukti arkeologi agak lemah untuk menyarankan bahwa Amenhotep saya mungkin terkait dirinya dalam kabupaten-bersama dengan penggantinya dimaksudkan-Nya. Di dinding kapel Amenhotep di Karnak, Tuthmosis saya ditampilkan berpakaian sebagai seorang raja, melakukan tugas kerajaan dan dengan namanya tertulis dalam cartouche kerajaan. Jika, seperti yang telah disarankan, adegan ini ditugaskan selama masa Amenhotep I, pasti ada dua raja di atas takhta pada waktu yang sama.
Tapi, mengesampingkan Daud untuk saat ini, dalam keadaan apa yang Saul sehingga berhasil membawa pengaruhnya untuk menanggung atas Mesir?
Awal penjelasan ini dapat ditemukan dalam rekonstruksi Velikovsky tentang sejarah, menceritakan bagaimana - saat dia melihatnya - kekalahan dinasti 18 Hyksos (Amu) adalah perang sama dengan kekalahan Saul orang Amalek [0200]. Karena bahaya yang ditimbulkan oleh musuh bersama, Mesir dan Israel sekarang sekutu perusahaan.
Sekarang, menurut Alkitab, "Saul mengalahkan orang Amalek, dari Hawila sampai ke Syur, yang di sebelah timur Mesir." Profesor A. Yahuda telah mengidentifikasi Hawila (bdk. Kejadian 2:11), disiram oleh Pishon (Nil), dengan wilayah-wilayah tersebut emas halus, Koptos, Edfu, dan Ombos [0210]. kampanye Saul telah demikian membawanya jauh ke Mesir.
Saul akan berhasil menaklukkan, terpisah dari orang Amalek yang tangguh, "semua nya musuh di setiap sisi - ... Moab ... bani Amon Edom ... ... raja-raja Zoba [koalisi Suriah] ... dan orang Filistin" (1.Samuel 14:47; 2.Sam 8:3; 10:06; Zoba:.. sebagian dari Suriah timur Coelesyria). Tentu saja orang Filistin dan Syria, jika tidak yang lain, telah pada bahwa ratusan ratusan waktu dengan kereta kuat. [211]
Jadi Saul harus telah menjadi raja besar memang dalam hal kekuatan militer.
Hal ini juga harus diingat bahwa dinasti ke-18, di bawah Ahmose, itu muncul dari periode panjang penaklukan Mesir asli dan penghinaan di tangan orang asing Hyksos. Tidak akan mengejutkan untuk menemukan bahwa Saul karena Israel mungkin datang untuk mengerahkan beberapa derajat pengaruh atas Mesir pada masa pemerintahan Ahmose. Ini hanya akan meningkat setelah meninggal dunia.
Bahkan ada kemungkinan kecil bahwa Ahmose adalah Ahimaas sangat yang putri Ahinoam Saul telah menikah (1.Samuel 14:50).
Sayangnya, meskipun, kita tidak bisa mengatakan sangat lebih banyak tentang Amenhotep saya karena kurangnya materi tentang dia di buku teks sejarah Mesir. Dan jika tubuhnya memang ditemukan pada tahun 1871 antara mumi kerajaan di Deir el-Bahri, maka ia tidak bisa menjadi Saul yang akhirnya dimakamkan di Yabesh di Israel (1.Samuel 31:12-13).
Hal ini setidaknya mungkin meskipun Amenhotep I teater utama dari operasi ternyata Israel, seperti Saul.
Thutmose Lagi
Kembali ke Thutmose I, alasan mengapa ia "ditampilkan berpakaian sebagai seorang raja, melakukan tugas kerajaan dan dengan namanya tertulis dalam cartouche kerajaan", bersama dengan Amenhotep I, adalah, saya sarankan, karena dia sudah adalah seorang raja. Dia tidak pernah benar-benar harus dilakukan seorang raja oleh Amenhotep I, atau oleh pejabat Mesir.
Dia mengambil, atau diberikan oleh orang Mesir, nama "anak Ra Thutmose" [0220]; yang mungkin menerjemahkan, dalam terminologi Israel, sebagai, "Anak Allah", "Anak Bijaksana". Daud dan Salomo keduanya dimaksud dalam Kitab Suci sebagai "Anak Allah" (1.Chronicles 22:6-12). Dan Daud adalah seorang pencinta besar kebijaksanaan, setelah memerintahkan anaknya untuk berdoa untuk hikmat (V.12). David sehingga bisa mengklaim banyak baik dari kredit untuk kebijaksanaan sendiri Salomo terkenal.
Thutmose I dianggap "telah didukung klaimnya tahta dengan menikahi Ahmes [Ahmose], adik Amenophis [Amenhotep] Aku" [0230]. Namun, bahkan yang memiliki pranala diduga dengan Amenhotep saya belum tentu didirikan, menurut Tyldesley [0240]:

    
Raja Tuthmosis saya menikah dengan seorang wanita bernama Ahmose, nama wanita populer di Kerajaan Baru Mesir. Ada beberapa ketidaksetujuan atas asal-usul wanita ini, dengan beberapa pihak berwenang mengklasifikasikan sebagai seorang putri Amenhotep saya dan yang lainnya menempatkan dirinya sebagai putri Ahmose dan Ahmose Nefertari dan karena itu saudara penuh Amenhotep I. Apa pun dia keturunan, sampai saat ini semua ahli sepakat bahwa Ahmose pasti seorang putri dari darah kerajaan, dan bahwa Tuthmosis harus memiliki menikahinya untuk membuat posisinya sebagai raja bahkan lebih aman. ...
Tapi, Tyldesley terus, seseorang tidak dapat bahkan yakin bahwa Ahmose dirinya adalah darah bangsawan [0250]:

    
Namun, Ratu Ahmose, yang menanggung judul 'King's Sister' (nesu Senet) tidak pernah diberikan judul yang lebih penting dari 'King's Daughter' (duduk nesu). Orang Mesir tidak umumnya pemalu pencatatan barisan mereka dan prestasi, dan ini keengganan yang tidak biasa itu mungkin merupakan indikasi bahwa Ahmose bukan putri raja, dan dengan ekstensi yang dia tidak bisa berupa anak perempuan atau adik Amenhotep I. Sebaliknya, ia mungkin sebenarnya telah menjadi kakak atau setengah-adik Tuthmosis I.
Atau, sebagai alternatif, "dia benar-benar mungkin telah" salah satu istri Daud sendiri Israel. Sebagai contoh, Ahinoam orang Yizreel, yang namanya memiliki setidaknya elemen pertama (Ahi, 'saudara') yang sama dengan Ahmose.
Apakah dia bahkan sebelumnya bernama Ahinoam istri Saul, dan karenanya sudah menjadi Ratu Israel sebelum David menikahinya? Jika demikian, maka tidak ada alasan untuk menganggap bahwa Daud telah melampaui Israel, ke Mesir, untuk menikahi seorang istri asing.
Pertama Kesimpulan
Thutmose Saya pasti pertandingan David karena itu dalam karir-jenis, usia perkiraan dan latar belakang non-kerajaan Mesir walaupun seorang raja.
Dan kronologi nya sangat cocok juga, dalam hal Senenmut sedang Salomo.
Dengan Thutmose saya atau istrinya Ahmose tegas darah kerajaan Mesir, atau asal tertentu, kita dibiarkan bebas untuk mengejar ide kita bahwa Thutmose saya memang David.
Daud dan Salomo Apakah Kings Akhir Zaman Perunggu
Petrus Yakobus dan David Rohl, revisionis Inggris, masing-masing telah mengusulkan bahwa gading yang ditemukan di Megido, salah satu benteng Salomo di Israel, "menunjukkan raja memegang pengadilan", sebenarnya mungkin merupakan gambaran Salomo sendiri dan ratu dalam kedok Mesir.
Megido perlu dicatat adalah salah satu benteng besar Salomo di Israel utara, di mana Salomo, menulis James [2010], membangun sebuah "kompleks istana monumental" (1.Kings 9:15). Dan itu di lokasi Megido bahwa "materi budaya Palestina pada akhir [era Salomo oleh revisi] Akhir Zaman Perunggu adalah yang terbaik terlihat". Plak gading, kata James:

    
... adalah kepentingan tertentu. [Penguasa] yang duduk di singgasana dihiasi dengan patung sphinx. Kalau memang dimaksudkan untuk mewakili tertentu daripada penguasa ideal, apakah itu akan terlalu banyak untuk membayangkan bahwa di gading ini kita benar-benar memiliki gambaran dari Egyptianized Raja Salomo?
Sekarang Rohl (yang tampaknya telah jatuh keluar begitu parah dengan James bahwa mereka tidak lagi merujuk kepada tulisan-tulisan masing-masing) memberikan rekening deskriptif tentang produk ini luar biasa [2020], tiba pada kesimpulan jenis yang sama seperti yang James:

    
Di sebelah kanan raja tiba di keretanya, mengemudi sebelum dia tawanan Shasu, di tengah adalah cameo intim penguasa yang sama, duduk di atas takhta dengan ratu dan kecapi pemain berdiri di hadapannya, ke kiri, di belakang raja, dua istana hadir dengan kebutuhan pasangan kerajaan itu. Sekarang mari kita memilih apa yang mungkin ditafsirkan sebagai unsur Mesir dalam adegan. Pertama, di atas kereta kuda adalah matahari disk-bersayap, kedua, ratu menawarkan bunga lotus ke suaminya; dan ketiga raja yang duduk di atas takhta, sisi yang dijaga oleh patung sphinx bersayap (singa berkepala manusia yaitu ). Sekitar raja kita lihat tiga merpati - motif yang terkenal damai, Salomo menikah dengan putri Mesir, ia telah 'tahta gading besar' dibuat untuk dia yang dilindungi oleh 'singa' di kedua sisi [1.Kings 10:18 - 20], nama tradisional berarti 'damai'.
Salomo nama Ibrani, Shelomoh - dikatakan berasal dari shalom ('damai') - memang bisa dikatakan berarti 'damai'. Dr Metzler meskipun, dalam mode ditiru nya, berpendapat bahwa Salomo adalah sebagian nama Mesir, berasal dari dia-El Amon (terdengar seperti sedikit hibrida).
Sejauh ini, saya belum berhasil berhasil menemukan apapun hubungan antara Salomo nama dan Senenmut (yang saya tetap diidentifikasi sebagai orang yang satu). Nama Senenmut, sn-n-MWt Mesir, digambarkan dalam hieroglif di bawah ini, berarti:
"Brother ibu."
"Brother ibu" adalah bukan konsep sangat membantu, dan aku bisa sama sekali tidak menyesuaikan dengan nama Salomo. (Walaupun mungkin berkaitan dengan beberapa nama lain dari Salomo karena ia tampaknya beberapa nama, misalnya ia juga dikenal sebagai Jedidiah, 2.Samuel 12:25). Namun, kami lihat di "Salomo dan Sheba" yang Senenmut suka memanipulasi hieroglif Mesir, misalnya menciptakan cryptograms dalam hal nama takhta Hatshepsut, Makera (berarti "sejati adalah Hati Ra"). Mungkin ia, sebagai Salomo licik dan intelektual, telah beradaptasi nama Mesir untuk Ibrani yang dalam gaya Metzler-ian. Jika demikian, nama Senenmut mungkin lebih samar dari sejauh ini telah dihargai.


Gading Megido dibahas di atas mungkin menjadi gambaran dari Salomo terkenal dan ratu Mesir-nya (Hatshepsut menurut rekonstruksi ini). Tetapi bahkan jika tidak, saya mengusulkan bahwa kita memiliki representasi kontemporer raja Salomo dalam sketsa Senenmut, dan patung-patung (yang terakhir termasuk putrinya, Neferure) seperti yang ditemukan dalam berbagai buku.

Mesir Garrisoned
Israel milik Saul dan Daud hari mulai meluap ke tanah Mesir subur, dan bahkan lebih, ke Ethiopia (Nubia). Kampanye ke Nubia sudah sedang dilakukan pada hari-hari pendahulunya Thutmose I, Amenhotep I, yang Raja Muda di tanah selatan Turi.
Thutmose I, segera setelah aksesi - menurut P. Montet - dikirim pemberitahuan ini kepada Raja Muda Nubia, Thuroy (kemungkinan Turi pemerintahan Amenhotep I) [0260]. Orang akan membayangkan bahwa para penyalin Thuroy di Nubia akan segera mulai bekerja memuliakan firaun baru dalam hal tradisional mereka, yang tentunya tidak memiliki persamaan dengan protokol sendiri Yahwistic Daud atau prasasti standar.
Beberapa tahun kemudian Thutmose tentara saya benar-benar akan muncul di tanah Nubia, menyiapkan ada string garnisun. Tyldesley bercerita tentang kampanye firaun's [0270]:

    
The Tuthmosis mantan jenderal Saya segera membuktikan dirinya sebagai penerus yang layak untuk tradisi yang baru didirikan raja-prajurit Mesir yang perkasa, memulai serangkaian kampanye asing flamboyan dan sangat sukses dimaksudkan untuk mengesankan keunggulan Mesir pada musuh-musuh tradisional dari selatan dan utara. Pada tahun kedua masa pemerintahan nya pasukan Mesir berbaris arah selatan ke Nubia, di mana, sebagai Ahmose bin Baba, memberitahu kita, mereka berhasil 'pemberontakan menghancurkan seluruh tanah dan ditolak para penyusup dari wilayah gurun', maju melewati Katarak Ketiga Nil, dimana Tuthmosis mendirikan sebuah stela untuk memperingati pencapaian besar, dan mencapai pulau Argo. ....
Dia meninggalkan di belakangnya suatu tanah pendiam dikendalikan oleh rantai benteng Mesir membentang di Nubia dan Sudan.

    
... Ini diikuti oleh kemenangan bahkan lebih spektakuler. Setelah mendirikan markas militer baru di utara ibukota lama Memphis, Tuthmosis ditekan ke arah timur ke Naharin, menyeberangi Sungai Efrat dan memasuki wilayah diperintah oleh musuh baru Mesir [sic], Raja Mitanni. Di sini, sebagai catatan Ahmose selalu ada:

        
[Mulia] pergi ke Retenu untuk melampiaskan murka-Nya di seluruh tanah asing. Mulia-Nya tiba di Naharin. Mulia - kehidupan, kemakmuran dan kesehatan di atasnya - menemukan bahwa musuh sedang mengumpulkan pasukan. Kemudian Yang Mulia membuat tumpukan besar dari mayat di antara mereka. Tak terhitung adalah tawanan hidup Mulia dari kemenangannya. Lo, saya berada di kepala tentara dan Mulia melihat keberanian saya. Aku membawa pergi sebuah kereta, kuda, dan orang yang ada di atasnya, sebagai tawanan yang hidup hadir untuk Sultan. Saya dihargai dengan emas lagi.

    
Setelah pertempuran besar dengan banyak musuh dibunuh atau ditawan, Tuthmosis meletakkan dasar-dasar dari apa yang kemudian berkembang menjadi Kekaisaran Asia Mesir. Sekali lagi sebuah stela peringatan itu diperlukan, kali ini harus ditetapkan di tepi Sungai Efrat.
Kampanye ini terakhir disebutkan "arah timur", ke Retenu dan Mitanni, sangat cocok dengan penaklukan Daud musuh yang paling tangguh, orang Filistin dan Syria, jika Retenu diambil sebagai Bawah Retenu - yaitu, dataran Shephelah pesisir di mana orang Filistin tinggal - dan jika aku benar dalam identifikasi sebelumnya saya Mitanni dengan Suriah (ke perbatasan Asyur) [278] Menurut Montet [0280]: "Tuthmosis Saya berasal kepuasan yang besar dari kenyataan bahwa, selama pemerintahannya, utusan Mesir. bisa perjalanan panjang dan luasnya Suriah tanpa diganggu. "
Kita dapat menyimpulkan, mengenai titik 4, bahwa Daud sebagai Thutmose aku telah efektif menaklukkan Mesir bahkan sampai Nubia dan Sudan.
Tidak ada hal ini dalam Kitab Suci, namun. Tidak garnisun di Memphis atau garnisun di Nubia disebutkan antara garnisun lain menaklukkan David (atau jendral) yang dikatakan telah didirikan di wilayah ditundukkan, misalnya di Syria, dan semua di seluruh Edom (2.Samuel 8:6,13). Tapi Alkitab adalah anehnya tetap diam tentang Mesir. Musa memberitahu kita sama sekali tidak karirnya di Mesir. Dan aturan Mesir (el-Amarna) selama C9th SM Palestina adalah tempat langsung disinggung, meskipun penelitian cerdas telah mampu membawa potongan-potongan halus dari teka-teki bersama-sama. Luar biasa juga, pengaruh besar Salomo atas Mesir, seperti Senenmut, dilewatkan di atas dalam Alkitab dalam satu atau dua ayat. Hal-hal ini tampaknya sedikit kepentingan para ahli Taurat Alkitab.
Karena Alkitab memberikan indikasi apa pun dari Daud memiliki pernah meninggalkan Israel untuk setiap periode waktu tertentu untuk memerintah Mesir, sejauh mana 'aturan' di sana mungkin telah melalui garnisun diperintahkan oleh pejabat sendiri (dengan proxy), di antara yang ada banyak pahlawan keterampilan militer besar (2.Samuel 23:8-39).
Thutmose III nanti akan membalikkan semua ini, sehingga Mesir akan pada zamannya datang untuk memerintah Siro-Palestina melalui garnisun sendiri dan gubernur pilihan.
Nama
Kontemporer nama pejabat Mesir, seperti [0290] abadi Ineni misalnya, benar-benar bisa berubah menjadi Israel, misalnya Hananya. Daud juga punya banyak anak dari berbagai istri siapa ia bisa memberikan jabatan resmi di luar negeri (I Tawarikh 3:1-9). Pada dasarnya meskipun awal raja-raja Israel, menganggap mereka benar-benar telah garrisoned Mesir / Ethiopia, akan merasa nyaman untuk mempertahankan di tempat birokrasi rumit sendiri Mesir.
Prasasti
Memang hampir tidak mungkin bahwa Daud akan mampu mempertahankan pengaruh pribadi yang kuat di Nubia sejauh ini ke selatan, dan bahkan dalam hal ini di Thebes. Dan ini mungkin sebagian menjelaskan 5 point kita, bagaimana prasasti Thutmose I, jika ia Daud, bisa menjadi rumus pagan biasa, tanpa tanda banyak modifikasi. Johnny Zwick telah memberikan penjelasan yang berguna berikut ini, tentang kepraktisan ini [0300]:
"... Prasasti, attributions, ujaran upacara, ushabtis dan item berhala yang dihasilkan cukup otomatis, tanpa petunjuk khusus 'raja', bahkan jika negara prasasti ia memerintahkan mereka.
Jika hal semacam ini mungkin, Thutmose aku sedang Daud, yang akan memberikan penerangan baru tentang arti prasasti Mesir dalam arti bahwa mereka adalah 'kaleng' teks, secara otomatis diterapkan oleh seniman terlatih berdasarkan tradisi dan cukup secara otomatis, tanpa disuruh atau masukan oleh penguasa (s) dirinya sendiri.
Hal ini juga akan menjelaskan bagaimana orang-orang 'penting' yang dianggap / dihormati bahkan jika non-pribumi ... walau kita tidak menemukan yang lain tapi logika tersirat. Hal ini juga dapat mengungkapkan toleransi Israel pada cara-cara Mesir dalam nama ini hubungan baik dan mungkin harapan menjadi saksi bagi mereka. "
Kemudian kita akan melihat juga bagaimana Hatshepsut 'kembali bekerja' prasasti Thutmose I.
Hukum oleh proxy, melalui terus berkembang birokrasi nya militer dan agama, pengaruh Israel David harus ditingkatkan sangat di Mesir setelah kematian Firaun Amenhotep I, setelah itu ia sendiri dianggap sebagai firaun selama sekitar sepuluh sampai lima belas tahun. Tapi tahun-tahun ini mungkin sebagian juga memiliki bertepatan dengan fase akhir pemerintahan Daud di Israel, yang merepotkan tahun pemberontakan terhadap dia, bahkan oleh anaknya sendiri Absalom (2.Samuel 13: 25-30), dan menjelang akhir yang Daud sendiri telah mulai merosot menjadi kepikunan.
Meskipun tidak diragukan lagi kekuatan dan keberhasilan, Thutmose I (seperti Amenhotep I) biasanya skim selesai dalam beberapa halaman dalam buku-buku sejarah Mesir. Kenyataannya adalah bahwa kita tidak tahu terlalu banyak tentang dia, dan banyak dari apa yang kita tahu adalah post-mortem, melalui kesaksian Hatshepsut dan Thutmose III yang begitu sangat mengaguminya. Kita tahu bahwa pada masa pemerintahan Thutmose I bangunan di Lembah Para Raja itu pertama kali dilakukan, kapel dan tugu dibangun. Kita tahu tentang kampanye militernya. Thutmose Aku bahkan menyimpulkan perang di atas Mitanni dengan berburu gajah. Hal ini sesuai apa yang kami lihat pada kesempatan sebelumnya, bahwa gajah-gajah tersebut roaming Suriah pada waktu itu, ada keraguan dibawa dari ekspedisi pedagang besar yang sedang dilakukan oleh Fenisia. [0310]
Mungkin David tidak pernah kehilangan naluri muda sebagai pemburu yang ia pernah berbicara kepada Saul, dalam menghadapi kesombongan Goliat (1.Samuel 17:34-36):

    
'Hamba Anda digunakan untuk menjaga domba untuk ayahnya, dan setiap kali singa atau beruang datang, dan mengambil domba dari kawanan, saya pergi setelah itu dan memukul ke bawah, menyelamatkan domba dari mulutnya, dan jika berbalik melawan saya , saya akan menangkapnya oleh rahang, mogok itu turun, dan membunuhnya. hamba Anda telah membunuh singa dan beruang baik, dan ini tidak disunat Filistin akan menjadi seperti salah satu dari mereka, karena ia telah dihinakannya balatentara Allah yang hidup '.
Faktor Cruelty
Tentara Mesir yang kembali dari kampanye Nubia awal menginginkannya diketahui bahwa tidak satu untuk menjadi kacau dengan [0320]: "Raja baru berlayar rumah di kemenangan dengan tubuh seorang Bowman Nubia, peringatan mengerikan kepada orang lain yang mungkin tergoda untuk memberontak, 'kepala ke bawah haluan kapal keagungan nya, Falcon' terbungkus. " kekejaman jelas Thutmose I dalam menyiksa dan membunuh musuh tidak - itu harus dikatakan - keluar dari tempat di rezim Daud, apakah David secara pribadi bertanggung jawab atau hanya oleh proxy. Daud dan para pejabat nya bisa kejam, atau memotong-motong, menurut standar kami. Bukankah Daud sendiri memenuhi permintaan Saul untuk 100 kulup orang Filistin untuk memenangkan tangan Mikhal, putri Saul hadiah (1.Samuel 18:25, 27)?
Demikian pula, anak Ahmose of Ibana, hadir di pengepungan Avaris, membual memiliki, sebagai Tyldesley menjelaskan [0330]:

    
"... Membawa pergi dari sana sebagai perampokan dua wanita dan tangan ....."
    
Ketika Ahmose menulis menangkap tangan dia mengacu pada praktek mengamputasi tangan, atau pada beberapa kesempatan penis [kulup], dengan musuh mati sehingga skala sebenarnya dari kemenangan dapat dinilai.
Ada banyak insiden haus darah yang berhubungan dengan Daud dan bala tentaranya. Di sini untuk contoh adalah rekening 2 Samuel pengobatan tegas Daud mengalahkan orang Moab (8:2):

    
[David] juga mengalahkan orang Moab dan, membuat mereka berbaring di tanah, diukur mereka pergi dengan tali, ia mengukur dua tali panjang bagi mereka yang akan dihukum mati, dan satu panjang bagi mereka yang akan diselamatkan . Dan Moab menjadi hamba kepada Daud dan membawa upeti. [0340]
Ini semua lebih mengejutkan bila kita menganggap bahwa raja Moab sebelumnya diizinkan Daud ke tempat penampungan orang tuanya di Moab (1.Samuel 22:3-4).
Juga adalah komandan Daud, Yoab, menetapkan preseden dengan membunuh semua laki-laki Edom (1.Kings 11:15). Daud, pada jaman dulu, bertekad untuk memusnahkan semua pria melayani testi Nabal, sampai Abigail bijaksana campur tangan untuk menyelamatkan situasi (1.Samuel 25:22-25).
Hewan pun tak luput baik. Selama perang dengan Hadadezer orang Siria: "David sembelih semua kuda kereta, tetapi meninggalkan cukup untuk seratus kereta" (2.Samuel 8:4).
Bukankah Allah akhirnya mengatakan "tercinta"-nya (arti Daud) hamba: "Kamu tidak akan membangun rumah [Bait] Nama saya, bagi Anda adalah seorang pejuang dan telah menumpahkan darah" (1.Chronicles 28:3)?
Tapi tampaknya bahwa beberapa jenderal David terlalu tidak manusiawi dan tanpa ampun bahkan untuk David. Setelah Yoab telah membunuh umum mulia Saul, Abner, Daud akan meratap: "Hari ini aku tak berdaya, meskipun raja diurapi, orang-orang ini, anak-anak [ibu Yoab's] Zeruya, terlalu keras untuk saya" (2.Samuel 03:39 ).
Mesir vs Israel Hukum: Kontak Israel dengan Mesir dari waktu Raja Saul kepada Salomo.
Tujuan: Menampilkan latar belakang Mesir untuk beberapa urusan dan peristiwa dalam kehidupan Raja Saul dan Daud:
1. Saul mencapai kemenangan atas orang-orang Amalek di Sungai Mesir (1.Sam. 15). 2. Ibrani nabi [Samuel, Achijah (1.Kings 11:29) dan Semaya (1.Kings 12:22)] dapat memenuhi fungsi pengacara negara, para ahli, yang bisa meramalkan konsekuensi hukum, atau hakim yang tahu apa yang akan dilakukan pengadilan dan memberikan nasihat mereka atas dasar mereka profesional know-how. (Keluaran 18:13-26; 1.Sam 7:15-17;. Lihat E. Metzler di `http://moziani.tripod.com/dynasty/ammm_2_1.htm ') 3. Kepala hakim disebut dalam bahasa Ibrani `Elohim 'yang` dihakimi / Safat' rakyat. `Elohim 'dalam penggunaan hukum tidak berarti` Tuhan'. The King James Version menerjemahkan `Elohim 'dalam Keluaran 22:08 dengan` Dayanim' (bahasa Inggris: hakim). Sehingga penyihir dari Endor (1.Sam 28:11 dst.) Menjelaskan hakim `Elohim 'sebagai orang tua dengan mantel (Samuel). [Keluaran 22:08, "... ia harus dibawa kepada` hakim '",' elohim 'adalah dewa dalam arti biasa, tetapi khusus digunakan dari Allah yang tertinggi; kadang-kadang diterapkan dengan cara menghormati` hakim'; dan kadang-kadang sebagai superlatif untuk malaikat, hakim, kuat, besar, melebihi. Mengapa kata-kata Ibrani dapat memiliki banyak arti yang dijelaskan di sini.] Tentu saja beberapa hari ini bahkan mengklaim bahwa mereka telah bertemu dengan kepribadian Alkitab lama. Mereka mengklaim bahwa mereka memiliki improvisasi dan sejenisnya. Semua ini ditipu oleh tuan penipuan. 4. Dinasti Mesir Kuno 18 diizinkan pernikahan antara saudara dan saudari dalam hubungannya dengan suksesi matrilineal berdasarkan fakta sejarah [450]. 5. Kerajaan Mesir diwariskan oleh putri sulung Firaun, yang harus menikahi saudara sendiri untuk melanjutkan dinasti. Alan Gardiner menyatakan bahwa Thutmose II ditunjukkan accompamied oleh Ratu Ahmose, janda Thutmose I, dan oleh putrinya istri yang hebat "raja`'s Hashepsowe / Hatshepsut [460], tapi baca terus. 6. Dalam perkawinan masyarakat Ibrani antara kakak dan adik itu tidak sah dan dosa. (Kej 12:13, 19; 20:02, Lev 20:17;. Ul 27:22.) 7. Mesir dikelilingi pada setiap sisi oleh gurun dan padang pasir penduduk relatif miskin. Hanya di arah timur-ke-utara adalah orang rajin kepentingan ekonomis cukup ke Mesir. [Klik di sini untuk diskusi tentang Punt.] 8. Itu sangat penting bagi Israel dan Mesir asli untuk mengatasi mereka Amalek / penjajah Hyksos jika mereka ingin kembali menjadi tuan dari nasib mereka sendiri. 9. Menurut buku-buku sejarah, Ahhotep (II) adalah putri Ahmose saya dan istrinya Ahmose-Nefertari. Amenophis aku adalah saudara dan suaminya. 10. Amenhotep saya meninggal tanpa ahli waris tetapi mumi bayi ditemukan dengan lambang mengidentifikasi tubuh sebagai anak Amenhotep I. [Lihat: http://www.touregypt.net/who/Ahhotep2.htm] 11. Nama istri Raja Saul bernama Ahinoam [0500], anak Ahimaas [0510] (1.Sam 14:50.), Yang dinikahinya pada awal pemerintahannya dan salah satu tempat mereka tinggal di sebuah benteng di Bet-Shan. istana benteng mereka di Gibea (Tel el Ful), sebelah utara Yerusalem. Ahinoam melahirkan 3 anak laki-laki Saul, Jonathan, Ishui, Melchishua, dan dua anak perempuan, Merab dan Mikhal, 1.Sam. 14:49. 12. Insiden Goliath terjadi sekitar pada tahun 27 Raja Saul, ketika Daud berada di usia remaja pertengahan. Jonathan saat ini sudah menjadi pria dewasa dan Ahinoam, istri Saul, harus sudah oleh ca waktu. 43 tahun. Pada kematian Raja Saul ia akan ca. 56 tahun. 13. Alkitab memberitahu kita nama-nama istri-istri Daud, Ahinoam dan Abigail (1.Sam 25:40,43.). Siapa Ahinoam, seolah-olah istri kedua Daud? Jika dia Ahinoam, istri Raja Saul, Daud Ahinoam menikah sebelum kematian Raja Saul menurut 1.Samuel 25:43. Jika Daud tidak segera menikah Ahinoam dalam perkawinan suksesi tapi tetap dia sampai kematian Saul, ia akan menjadi sebuah ca. 56 tahun wanita tua. Mungkinkah dia lahir dia seorang putra (Amnon) pada usia (2.Sam 3:2.)? Atau haruskah kita berasumsi bahwa dia, katakanlah, sembilan tahun saat ia menikah Saul dan begitu, akan 49 pada saat Daud menikahinya? Sementara hari ini jarang, wanita pada usia yang bisa di waktu masih beruang anak menurut laporan medis [515] Jika Ahinoam, istri Daud,. Bukan Ahinoam, mantan istri Raja Saul, mungkin tetap pertanyaan jika dia bisa saja seorang putri atau anggota keluarga dekat dari Ahinoam Saul. Ahinoam (artinya `saudara menyenangkan ', Young's Concordance) bisa dibaca sesuai dengan pemikiran Mesir sebagai` Ahhotep' adalah `hotep 'berarti` menyenangkan' [Lihat # 8]. Dia memiliki seorang putra dengan nama Mesir `Amnon ', putra sulung Daud (2.Sam 3:2.). Ketika mencoba untuk menikahi Tamar, kakaknya, Amnon bertindak sesuai dengan kebiasaan Mesir. Amnon juga bisa dibaca sebagai Amon-On, mengacu pada dewa Mesir Amon di kota On (Kejadian 41:45, 50; 46:20). Pertanyaan: Jika Ahimaas Firaun Ahmosis, mengapa Alkitab tidak pernah menyebut Ahimaas / Ahmose, ayah dari Ahinoam, firaun? Dua alasan mungkin dapat menjelaskan pertanyaan ini: 1. Alasan yang lebih lemah mungkin ini, 2.Chronicles 35:20 memperkenalkan Necho sebagai "Necho, Raja Mesir ...". Dalam vers 22 kita membaca sederhana, "... tidak mendengarkan permintaan kepada kata-kata Necho dari ...". Tentu saja kita masih tahu dari vers 20 bahwa ini Necho adalah raja, tetapi tidak menulis judul lagi tidak terjadi di sini dalam kitab Tawarikh. 2. Hari ini kita berpikir tentang Ahmose sebagai Firaun, tetapi menurut revisi kami, dia tidak menjadi raja sampai dalam 2 tahun terakhir pemerintahan Raja Saul. Kita mungkin tidak jauh dari dalam menunjukkan bahwa itu perlu beberapa rentang waktu yang tidak diketahui untuk Ahmose untuk memastikan kerajaan di atas rakyatnya sendiri, jauh lebih dari itu, untuk menjadi dikenal sebagai raja untuk orang lain seperti orang Israel. 14. Samuel memerintahkan larangan untuk tidak mengambil barang rampasan dari orang Amalek. [0520] 15. Saul pelanggaran janji kepada Daud diendapkan nya merusak karena calon menantu nya di-Daud telah dipilih dan diurapi sebagai raja atas Israel. (1.Sam. 16:13) 16. Meskipun Saul memiliki 3 putra dan 2 putri oleh Ahinoam (1.Sam. 14:49), konflik antara Mesir dan Israel hukum mencegah dia dari mendirikan dinasti sendiri. 17. Di bawah hukum suksesi matrilineal, siapapun yang menikahi anak sulung putrinya Merab akan menjadi pengganti Saul sesuai dengan praktik Mesir.

    
a) Jika Saul ingin salah satu dari anak-anaknya untuk menggantikannya, anak (Jonathan) harus menikahi kakaknya atau bahkan ibunya dalam sebuah perkawinan sedarah yang tidak dapat diterima menurut standar Israel.
    
b) Pada Saul pertama berjanji untuk memberikan putri sulungnya kepada Daud (1.Sam. 18:17).
    
c) Ketika Saul menyadari bahwa nabi dijadwalkan Daud untuk menjadi raja berikutnya, ia memberikan Merab ke salah satu bernama Adriel the Meholathite (1.Sam. 18:19).
    
d) Oleh karena bukan menikah Merab, David menikah muda Mikhal putri Saul (1.Sam 18:17-27)..
    
e) pelanggaran janji ini menjadi alasan bagi kejatuhan pemerintahan Saul, karena Daud sudah dipilih sebagai calon menantu di-dan telah diurapi untuk menjadi raja berikutnya (1.Sam 16:13). untuk berhasil Saul setelah ia meninggal (1.Sam 26:10.).
    
f) Dengan menikahi Mikhal, Daud tidak berhak atas tahta menurut standar Mesir yang, bagaimanapun, tidak akan mempengaruhi pendapat para nabi Israel yang setia.
    
g) Saul terus mencoba dan membunuh Daud (1.Sam 20:31) karena ia ingin menjadi raja Jonathan -. (yang mungkin bisa berbicara Mesir karena ia adalah anak dari ibu Mesir, dan yang mungkin memahami hukum Mesir dan Israel lebih baik dari ayahnya dan karena itu tahu bahwa menurut hukum Israel dia tidak bisa menjadi raja, (1.Sam 23:17;. Keluaran 34:16; Ulangan 18:14-17) tetapi hanya sahabat terdekat Daud, 1.Sam. 18:03, 20:16-42).
    
h) istri David Mikhal mencintai dia dan saudara laki-lakinya Jonathan, dan membantu David untuk melarikan diri keluar dari jendela istana benteng Saul lari ke orang Filistin, 1.Sam. 19:12.
    
i) Meskipun Daud bisa membunuh Saul, ia malah mengambil istrinya Achinoam jauh dari Yizreel (terletak di Bet-Shan, di persimpangan sungai Yordan dan lembah Yizreel), dimana orang Israel tinggal (1.Sam 29:1;. 25 : 43) [0530].
Asumsi: The Achinoam siapa Daud menikah adalah Achinoam, istri Saul. j) Ini adalah memberi dan menerima: Jika Saul menyerahkan istri Daud, Daud punya alasan untuk membalas dengan mengambil istri Saul. k) Setelah kematian Saul, Daud punya Mikhal kembali dari kakaknya Ish-Boshet (2.Sam 3:14-16). dan terus Achinoam. l) Saul marah terhadap Jonathan karena Saul menyadari bahwa Daud akan berakhir menikah dengan istrinya Achinoam Mesir. Dia menyadari bahwa pergaulan masyarakat (Mesir) matrilineal akan membuat ini mungkin dan bahwa Daud tidak akan melampaui melakukan hal ini untuk nanti dia tidak akan ragu untuk mengambil nyawa suami wanita untuk membuat istrinya sendiri (2.Sam. 11:2-27). m) Masalah-masalah hukum yang serius dari pernikahan internasional antara orang Israel dengan putri Mesir datang para nabi Ibrani. [540] n) Saul juga 2 anak oleh-Nya Rizpah selir, putri Aiah, yang, kita asumsikan, adalah Amalek / Hyksos raja Agag / Apophis (`Aiah 'menjadi korupsi Ibrani mengatakan antusias). Nama mereka Armoni dan Mefiboset (2.Sam 21:6-10 terdengar nama Mesir. [550]). Di beberapa titik waktu semua putra Rizpah dan Mikhal (putri Saul) digantung. o) Menurut hukum Israel, karena Daud telah menikah dengan janda Saul, ia bisa menjadi raja. Hal ini ditunjukkan dalam kasus Adonia, yang telah dieksekusi karena pengkhianatan oleh Salomo, karena ia telah mencoba untuk menikahi janda Daud Abisag dari Sunem (1.Kings 2:22-25). Demikian pula, putra Saul Ish-Boshet, yang memerintah sebagai raja selama 2 tahun (2.Sam 2:10.), Merasa ditantang oleh Abner affair dengan gundik ayahnya Rizpah (2.Sam. 3:7-10), mungkin seorang anak perempuan dari Agag (Aiah salah eja), raja Amalek terakhir dikalahkan oleh Saul dan dilaksanakan oleh Samuel (1.Sam 15:32,. 33). p) Bentrokan antara Mesir dan hukum Israel menjadi jelas dalam kehidupan Saul dan Daud karena tindakan mereka sendiri dan bahwa anak-anak mereka. q) Atas dasar apa Samuel bernubuat bahwa kerajaan akan diambil dari Saul? (1.Sam 15:28;. 28:17) Atas dasar yang sama bahwa nabi Achijah dari Silo meramalkan bahwa kerajaan Salomo akan diambil dari dia (1.Kings 11:11-13, 31-32), dan Yerobeam akan memerintah lebih dari 10 suku. Samuel dan Achijah keduanya berbicara tentang hukum yang mengatur warisan [570]. Saul, Daud dan Salomo telah menikah menjadi masyarakat matrilineal. Dalam melakukannya, mereka mengikuti contoh dari Abraham yang juga memiliki hubungan pernikahan dengan seorang wanita Mesir, Hagar. (Kejadian 16:1) Namun, tindakan ini terjadi sebagai akibat kurangnya iman dalam instruksi Yehova dan kemudian menanggung konsekuensi dari ketidaktaatan keparahan dibawa ketika dia (Ibrahim) bertindak atas dorongan sendiri. Perilaku Masyarakat terhadap satu sama lain dan iman atau kurangnya lagi ke Great I Am itu, dan masih, tak terpisahkan dari klaim Allah terhadap kemanusiaan. Seperti Raja Daud kemudian bebas mengakui itu, "Hanya orang bodoh yang mengatakan tidak ada Allah." (Mazmur 14:1) tuduhan palsu dilontarkan terhadap Innocent digunakan sepanjang sejarah r) Saul telah diwakili Daud sebagai seorang pengkhianat dan seorang konspirator, berbaring di tunggu untuk mengambil nyawa raja, bahwa ia mungkin memiliki kerajaan sendiri. Raja telah mewakili hal itu kepada orang-orang sedemikian cahaya yang tampaknya perlu untuk mencabut Daud dalam hidupnya, bahwa kemakmuran Israel mungkin akan dipertahankan (1.Sam 18:8-11,29;. 19:01, 9 , 10; 20:31,32; 23:8,9). - Saul mengejar Daud di dalam padang gurun yang ingin mengambil hidupnya. Umumnya ketika seseorang melakukan hal ini mereka memiliki alasan untuk melakukannya karena tidak akan terlihat sangat baik untuk rakyat dan bangsa. Dalih alam ini biasanya tampak masuk akal sehingga akan terlihat baik kepada rakyat sehingga Saul berusaha untuk mendirikan Daud sebagai pengkhianat dan konspirator, mengatakan bahwa ia meletakkan di menunggu untuk membunuh raja sehingga ia bisa menjadi raja baru . s) Nabi Yeremia telah tuduhan palsu dilontarkan terhadap dirinya. - Kabar dari kata-kata Yeremia dibawa ke para pemuka Yehuda, dan mereka bergegas dari istana raja ke bait suci, untuk mempelajari sendiri kebenaran hal ini. "Maka berkatalah para imam dan para nabi kepada para pangeran dan kepada semua orang, berkata, Orang ini layak untuk mati, sebab ia telah bernubuat terhadap kota ini, seperti yang telah kamu dengar dengan telinga Anda." Yer. 26:11. Namun Yeremia berani berdiri sebelum para pangeran dan orang-orang, menyatakan: "Tuhan mengutus aku untuk bernubuat terhadap rumah ini dan terhadap kota ini semua kata yang telah kamu dengar Jadi sekarang mengubah tingkah langkahmu dan perbuatanmu Anda, dan mematuhi suara. TUHAN, Allahmu, dan Tuhan akan bertobat kepada-Nya dari kejahatan yang Ia telah diucapkan terhadap Anda Seperti untuk saya, lihatlah, aku di tangan Anda: lakukan dengan saya sebagai seemeth baik dan bertemu kepada kamu Tapi kamu tahu dengan pasti, yang.. jika kamu membunuh aku, kamu pasti harus membawa darah yang tidak berdosa atas kamu, dan atas kota ini, dan atas penduduknya: untuk sebuah kebenaran Tuhan telah menyuruh aku kepadamu untuk berbicara semua kata-kata di telinga Anda ". Ayat 12-15. Para tetua juga bersatu dalam memprotes keputusan para imam mengenai nasib Yeremia. Mereka menyebutkan kasus Mikha, yang telah bernubuat penghakiman atas Yerusalem, mengatakan, "Sion akan dibajak seperti ladang, dan Yerusalem akan menjadi timbunan, dan gunung rumah sebagai tempat yang tinggi hutan." Dan mereka bertanya: "Apakah Hizkia raja Yehuda dan seluruh Yehuda menempatkannya di semua sampai mati dia tidak takut akan Tuhan, dan menyembah Tuhan, dan Tuhan-Nya bertobat dari kejahatan yang Ia telah diucapkan terhadap mereka Dengan demikian mungkin kita? pengadaan besar jahat terhadap jiwa kita. " Yeremia 18,19. Melalui permohonan orang-orang ini pengaruh kehidupan nabi terhindar, meskipun banyak dari para imam dan nabi palsu, tidak dapat menanggung kebenaran mengutuk ia mengucapkan, dengan senang hati akan melihat dia dihukum mati pada pembelaan hasutan. [Lihat juga pengadilan Yesus dan tuduhan palsu terhadap dirinya, Lukas 23:2,5, dan para rasul, Kis 17:07; 24:5. Jenis tuduhan itu juga digunakan oleh Francis I., Raja Perancis, sebagai alasan mengapa ia dibakar sampai mati banyak Protestan di negaranya. Sebagai orang yang tertarik dalam sejarah kita harus mencatat hal-hal ini karena biaya tepat tersebut akan ditempatkan terhadap orang yang tidak bersalah, lagi dan lagi, bahkan di tempat-tempat yang beragam bagi mereka terinspirasi oleh setan. Aku Thutmose's Penguburan dan Keturunan Nya 

In a recent series of "Compass" shown on ABC TV (Australia), the presenter, an Englishman who had actually been held as a hostage in Israel for a time, and had as a result developed a great interest in that land, set out to find if the best known Old Testament stories had any basis in archaeological fact. Perhaps the title of the TV documentary,"It Ain't Necessarily So", already gave the viewer a preview, a foreboding, that this man's search was not going to prove terribly successful. Actually it turned out to be quite a disaster. The experienced archaeologists upon whose information this presenter had to depend completely, men like William Dever and Israel Finkelstein, unable to find any evidence for an Egyptianised Israel of the Exodus, or for the Joshuan conquest of Canaan, or for the Solomonic era, led him to the conclusion that these biblical events had no basis in reality. It was tragic - and frustrating in the extreme - to watch these archaeologists in action. Guided by their faulty Sothic dating system they, every time, pointed to an empty site or thin air as to where they thought Joshua, or David, or Solomon, ought to be, whilst at that same moment standing upon the very archaeological layers where the evidences for these civilizations are actually to be found.
Talk about the blind leading the blind!
Some of the archaeologists interviewed did occasionally come to light with data that they thought belonged to a given biblical era or nation, such as the Philistines. A few, even though they had found nothing, argued the 'absence of evidence is not evidence of absence' line. In this regard one cited the case of the Byzantine era, known to have had a huge influence upon Jerusalem, of which he had nevertheless found "not a single sherd". But by far the majority of archaeologists interviewed were entirely of the minimalist Dever-Finkelstein view.
There were a couple of moments of light. As when the founder of the famous Tell Dan inscription referring to the "House of David" showed that actual inscription to the cameras and laughed at the early attempts by archaeologists to explain it away. However, the phrase shows up twenty five times in the OT and once in the NT letting us known it was a well used saying. And the program's presenter himself came to be convinced that a massive altar on Mount Ebal in Samaria was the one that Joshua had built there (Joshua 8:30). Indeed it was made of "unhewn stones" (v.31), and the archaeological data discovered around this altar seemed to fit very well that this was indeed an ancient Israelite site of sacrifice.
David himself was grudgingly accorded a real existence, based largely on the Tell Dan evidence, but now as only some very petty king over a tiny portion of Israel. Solomon, however, was virtually denied any real existence at all. Only lately began archaeologists to uncover the summit of Tell Rumeida upon which a Crusader monastery was built atop the location of the residences of rulers of the ancient city. David reigned from Hebron for 7½ years before he moved his administration to Jerusalem.[5] The irony is that, as with David, so with Solomon, there is an ancient, non-biblical reference to his "House"; but because it was found in Egypt (el-Amarna) - whose history has not been properly synchronized with Israel's - it cannot be identified, as can David's, for what it really is. I refer to the "Bit Šulmãni" references in pharaoh Akhnaton's archive (letters 74 & 290), which phrase translates as "House of Šulmãn" (and most plausibly, especially in its context: "House of Solomon").
Tell El-Amarna
The relevant el-Amarna letters were actually written to Akhnaton by the contemporary king of Jerusalem no less - most convincingly identified by revisionists as JEHORAM of Judah of the mid C9th BC - who wrote (letter 290):"…the capital of the country of Jerusalem - its name is Bit Šulmãni - the king's city, has broken away."
But with Akhnaton conventionally dated almost half a millennium before Solomon, there could be no thought that these two letters could really contain reference to that great king of Jerusalem.
One of the archaeologists interviewed in the TV program under discussion, comparing the biblical description of David's vast kingdom with what he believed to be the almost total dearth of historico-archaeological evidence for the king, exclaimed that if David were as great as the Bible describes him as being then we should expect some reference to him in historical documents outside of Israel, for instance "by the Egyptians and the Assyrians."
That is a fair enough remark. And my response to it is that there is such evidence for David in abundance, if one only knows where to look for it.
The glorious eras of David and Solomon will never be found where Finkelstein keeps looking for them, however, in the most impoverished Iron Age strata, but rather in the Late Bronze Age. Already in this revision we have seen that the Late Bronze Israelite civilization of king Solomon overflowed like a flood into Egypt and Ethiopia. Just as of old, when the ancient river of Eden (site of Jerusalem; cf. Ezekiel 28:12-17) "flow[ed] out" and gushed into Egypt as the Pishon (that part of the Nile that encompasses the gold-yielding regions of Koptos, Edfu, and Ombos) and into and around Cush (Ethiopia) as the Gihon(Nubian Nile, See Map), and watered the east as the Tigris and Euphrates(Genesis 2:10-14), so too did the Israel of David's and Solomon's time overflow to become the civilizing source of wisdom for the entire ancient world. "Thus King Solomon excelled all the kings of the earth in riches and in wisdom. The whole earth sought the presence of Solomon to hear his wisdom, which God had put into his mind" (1.Kings 10:23-24).
And who were these contemporary wisdom-seeking "kings"?
They were great ones indeed. I am talking historically here. My revision has set Solomon at the time of such celebrated monarchs as:
1
2
3
HAMMURABI of Babylon;
IARIM-LIM (i.e., Hiram), Said to be a son of Abibaal (ca. 1000 BC), of Syro-Phoenicia;
HATSHEPSUT (biblical Queen Sheba ) of Egypt/Ethiopia.
Solomon himself is the great SOLON of Greek folklore (appropriated by the Greeks from the Jews; Solon's laws being found to be largely Jewish however).
The glorious reign of Hammurabi, a veritable watershed in Mesopotamian history, reflects Solomonic influence in its every facet (socio-economic, law, religion, architecture) [0010], as does Hatshepsut's reign over Egypt/Ethiopia. Just as Marduk becomes the supreme god in Babylon at the time; so does Hatshepsut thus honour her god, Amun.
Solomon is said to have had certain enemies, apart from Jeroboam, rise up in the latter, decadent part of his reign: namely, HADAD the Edomite and REZIN, a Syrian (1.Kings 11:14, 23). Rezin I have previously identified with Zimri-Lim of Mari. Now a possible candidate for Hadad is Ishkhi-Adad of Qatna, ally of David's arch-rival, Shamsi-Adad I (biblical Hadadezer ), and who continued on as a force for some time after the latter's death, though "the end of Ishkhi-Adad's reign is still obscure" [0020]:
The two states of Aleppo and Qatna appear to have developed almost simultaneously. We are better informed about the history of the second during the reign of Shamsi-Adad because he was the ally of Ishkhi-Adad, who occupied the throne of Qatna at that time. The arrangement between the two monarchs had been sealed by a marriage, Iasmakh-Adad, the viceroy of Mari, having married Ishkhi-Adad's daughter. Co-operation was political and military as well as economic. There were frequent movements of troops between Mari and Qatna, and it seems likely that a detachment from Mari was stationed in the Syrian town. The presence of these foreign soldiers at Qatna does not seem to indicate a relation of dependence, for Ishkhi-Adad himself insisted on their being sent, and invites his son-in-law to take part in an expedition which seems likely to yield some spoils. It was Shamsi-Adad who had taken the first steps towards the marriage, stressing to his son that the house of Qatna had a 'name'. He also dealt on level terms with Ishkhi-Adad, whom he called his brother.
That Hadad would indeed have had a 'name', or would come to have had a 'name', is apparent from what we know of his drama-packed early life. Hadad was "of the royal house of Edom"; a country from which he had had to flee as "a young boy", with his retainers, when David's General Joab (whose cousin was Absalom's commander Amasis, 2.Sam. 17:25), systematically, over a six month period, slew every male in Edom (1.Kings 11:14-16). The prince managed to flee to Egypt, to Pharaoh (vv. 18-20), who:
…gave him a house, assigned him an allowance of food, and gave him land. Hadad found great favour in the sight of Pharaoh, so that he gave him his sister-in-law for a wife, the sister of Queen Tahpenes.
The sister of Tahpenes gave birth by him to his son Genubath, whom Tahpenes weaned in Pharaoh's house; Genubath was in Pharaoh's house among the children of Pharaoh.
Immanuel Velikovsky may very well have found, as he claimed, references to both Queen Tahpenes and Genubath in the Egyptian records, appropriately spaced according to his chronological revision. Thus Velikovsky wrote [0030]:
The pharaoh [who received young Hadad] must have been Ahmose. Among his queens must have been one by the name of Tahpenes. We open the register of the Egyptian queens to see whether pharaoh Ahmose had a queen by this name. Her name is actually preserved and read Tanethap, Tenthape, or, possibly, Tahpenes.
… Hadad had returned to Edom [sic] in the days of Solomon, after the death of Joab.[32] Since then about forty years had elapsed. Genubath, his son, was now the vassal king of Edom; he dwelt either in Edom or in Egypt.
Tribute from this land, too, must have been sent to the Egyptian crown; there was no need to send an expedition to subdue Edom. When Thutmose III returned from one of his inspection visits to Palestine he found in Egypt tribute brought by couriers from the land "Genubatye", which did not have to be conquered by an expeditionary force.
"When his majesty arrived in Egypt the messengers of the Genubatye came bearing their tribute."
It consisted of myrrh, "negroes for attendants", bulls, calves, besides vessels laden with ivory, ebony and skins of panther.

Who were these people of Genubatye? Hardly a guess has been made with regard to this peculiar name. The people of Genubatye were the people of Genubath, their king, contemporary of Rehoboam.
And thanks to Velikovsky's 18th Egyptian dynasty reconstruction, we can know too that Saul of Israel was contemporaneous with pharaoh Ahmose, and that Israel was in fact allied with the Egyptians; an alliance forged in their common struggle against the hated Amu /Amalekites.
With this in mind, I had previously suggested that David's resounding defeat of Hadadezer's Syrian coalition (e.g. 2.Samuel 8:3-6) would have been achieved with Egyptian military support; this last being a factor that would become common practice (at least in theory) during a later phase of the 18th dynasty (el-Amarna).
But it had seemed that there was far more than just a military union between Israel and Palestine. Egypt was in fact beginning to be flooded by Israel's new, vibrant civilization. How could this be happening to a nation known to be extremely conservative, insular and closed to change?
The Encouraging Signs that King Saul of Israel was Pharaoh Amenhotep I.
There were, I found, some initial encouraging signs for Amenhotep I's being king Saul. For instance:
1. Amenhotep I was not related to Ahmose, but married his daughter, Ah-hotep. Now, amazingly, Saul had a father-in-law called Ahimaaz, which seems to be an exact Hebrew equivalent of the Egyptian name, Ahmose; Saul having married Ahimaaz's daughter, Ahinoam (1 Samuel 14:50).
2. Secondly, DNA testing has shown that Amenhotep I was not related to Thutmose I; just as David was unrelated to Saul.
3. Thirdly, Amenhotep I and Thutmose I may have shared a co-regency; just as Saul and David were yoked together (though usually in uncomfortable harness, as enemies) in a co-regency.
Despite these encouraging early signs, I considered my Amenhotep I = Saul equation to be extremely tentative when I wrote my article on the new 18th dynasty scenario, entitled "The House of David", in which I proposed that the Thutmoside 18th dynasty of Egypt was actually, in its origins, a Davidic Israelite dynasty. The Coronation Ceremonies (For more click Here)
Moreover, the overflow from Israel went to the very heart of the matter: to the coronation ceremony. The very ceremonial procedure, in its three phases, that David had used for the coronation of his chosen son, Solomon, was the procedure used by Thutmose I (Amenhotep I's successor) in the coronation of the former's daughter, Hatshepsut.
I have followed J. Baikie for the Egyptian texts in the right-hand column below [0040]:
David Thutmose I
The Assembly Summoned The Assembly Summoned
"David", we are told, "assembled at Jerusalem all the officials of the tribes, the officers of the divisions that served the king, the commanders of thousands, ... of hundreds, the stewards of all the property ... and all the seasoned warriors" (I Chronicles 28:1). Likewise in the case of the young Hatshepsut, her father, Thutmose I [0050]:"... caused that there be brought to him the dignitaries of the king, the nobles, the companions, the officers of the court, and the chief of the people."
Future Ruler Presented Future Ruler Presented
Next, David presented his son, Solomon, to the assembly as his successor, saying:'... of all my sons ... the Lord ... has chosen Solomon my son to sit upon the throne of the kingdom of the Lord, over Israel. He said to me, 'It is Solomon your son .... I have chosen him to be My son, and I will be his Father'.' (vv. 5-6). So did Pharaoh present his daughter to the august assembly [0060]:"Said His Majesty to them: 'This my daughter ... Hatshepsut .... I have appointed her; she is my successor, she it is assuredly who will sit on my wonderful seat [throne]. She shall command the people in every place of the palace; she it is who shall lead you ...'."
Assembly Embraces King's Decision Assembly Embraces King's Decision
The assembly of Israel concurred wholeheartedly with David's decision:"And all the assembly blessed the Lord ... and bowed their heads, and worshipped the Lord, and did obeisance to the king .... And they ate and drank before the Lord on that day with great gladness" (29:20, 22). Similarly, in the case of the Egyptian officials [0070]:"They kissed the earth at his feet, when the royal word fell among them .... They went forth, their mouths rejoiced, they published his proclamation to them."


Might not one have imagined that Egypt, so steeped in ceremony and cultic procedure over so many dynasties and centuries would by now have had its own inviolable court system? How great therefore must have been the Israel of David's time that even its ceremonial procedures had flowed into Egypt? Religious Parallels
Perhaps even more remarkable still was that Israel's religion was overflowing into Egypt. That Hatshepsut was re-inventing Karnak as Egypt's Jerusalem is evidenced by the unmistakably Davidic psalmery that she had written on the base of one of her obelisks. Conventional scholar, Baikie, both notes it and chronologically misinterprets it [0080]:
And then, in language which might have come straight out of the Book of Psalms, though it belongs to an age centuries before [sic] the first of the Psalms was written, she continues:
I did it under [God's] command; it was he who led me. "Yet the Lord will command his loving kindness in the daytime ... Teach me thy way, oh Lord, and lead me in a plain path ... he leadeth me ..." Ps. 42:8; 27:11; 23:2.
I conceived no works without his doing; it was he who gave me directions. "... when the king sat in his house, and the Lord gave him rest round about him from all his enemies ... thou shalt build me an house ..." 2.Sam. 7:1,5.
"He (David's son) shall build an house for my name ..." 2.Sam. 7:13
I slept not because of his temple; I erred not from that which he commanded. " The wicked have laid a snare for me: yet I erred not from thy precepts." Psalm 119:110.
My heart was wise before my father; I entered into the affairs of his heart. "Thou hast proved my heart; thou hast visited me in the night ... Who so is wise, and will observe these things, even they shall understand the loving kindness of the Lord." Ps. 17:3; 107:43.
"For he shall not much remember the days of his life; because God answereth him in the joy of his heart." Eccl. 5:20.
I turned not my back on the City of the All-Lord; but turned to it the face. "Our heart is not turned back, neither have our steps declined from thy ways ... Thy face, o Lord, will I seek." Ps. 44:18; 27:8.
I know that Karnak is God's dwelling upon earth ….
James Breasted, Records of Egypt, Vol. II, Sec. 316; p. 131.
"I have surely built thee an house to dwell in, a settled place for thee to abide in forever. ... The Lord God ... may dwell in Jerusalem forever." 1.Kings 8:13; 1.Chronicles 23:25.


Baikie continues [0090]:
The sleepless eagerness of the queen for the glory of the temple of her god, and her assurance of the unspeakable sanctity of Karnak as the divine dwelling-place, find expression almost in the very words which the Psalmist used to express his sense of duty towards the habitation of the God of Israel, and his certainty of Zion's sanctity as the abiding-place of Jehovah: "Surely I will not come into the tabernacle of my house, nor go up into my bed; I will not give sleep to mine eyes, or slumber to mine eyelids. Until I find out a place for the Lord, an habitation for the mighty God of Jacob - For the Lord hath chosen Zion; he hath desired it for his habitation. This is my rest for ever; here will I dwell; for I have desired it" Psalms 132:3-4, 13-14; 2.Samuel 7:5-6
As noted in previous articles, not only David's own writings [0095], but even images from the pre-Davidic Torah (e.g. Genesis) - and from Solomon's wisdom writings and his love poem, Song of Songs - were used by Hatshepsut in her inscriptions.
Construction Parallels
Hatshepsut even built her magnificent temple at Deir el-Bahari along Solomonic lines - not surprisingly since Solomon himself, as Senenmut - was her chief architect. The Phoenician influence this beautiful temple displays (cf. Mariette) would undoubtedly be the work of Hiram's Phoenicians, allies of Solomon, who were amongst the master craftsmen for the building of the Temple in Jerusalem (1.Kings 5:7-18).
Covenant, Ark of the
Hatshepsut would even employ a high-priest in her religious infrastructure.
Now of the high offices of priest, secretary and recorder (herald) established by David in Israel (2.Samuel 8:16-17. Cf. 1.Kings 4:2-3), the latter two are actually considered by some to have been borrowed from Egypt [0100]. But more likely now the correct order of influence is that these became established Egyptian offices only after having firstly been borrowed from Davidic Israel.
Furthermore, do we not find at the time of Hatshepsut greater attention being given to the greatest of all the gods, Amun, and to his barque (ark)-like vessel which was carried around by priests bearing poles on their shoulders? Thus Joyce Tyldesley [0110]:
The Red Chapel, now known more commonly by its French name of Chapelle Rouge, was a large sanctuary of red quartzite endowed by Hatshepsut to house the all-important barque of Amen. Amen's barque, or barge, known as Userhat-Amen (Mighty of Prow is Amen), was a small-scale gilded wooden boat bearing the enclosed shrine which was used to protect the statue of the god from public gaze.[0115] When Amen, on the holy days which were also public holidays, left the privacy of his sanctuary to process through the streets of Thebes, he sailed in style concealed within the cabin of his boat-shrine which was carried, supported by wooden poles, on the shoulders of his priests. When Amen was not traveling the barque rested in its own sanctuary or shrine.
The sacred barque had always played a minor role in Egyptian religious ritual, but during the early New Kingdom it had become an increasingly important part of theology, and most temples now gave great prominence to the barque sanctuary.
That strongly reminds one of the Ark of the Covenant, of great age, before which David danced (2.Samuel 6:14). David had re-emphasized the order that the awe-inspiring Ark was to be carried by "no one but the Levites" (1.Chronicles 15:2). The 'boat' aspect may even hark back to the time when baby Moses (little Horus in the Egyptian version) was enclosed by his mother in an ark (teba) and floated on the river (Exodus 2:3).
Both the Israelite and Egyptian versions of the ark were oracular. Both ideally went forth before their armies into battle (1.Samuel 14:18). Thutmose III (biblical "Shishak") will, after Hatshepsut's death, have that ark of Amun proceed before his own army up the terrifying Aruna (Araunah) pass as he marches to the conquest of Jerusalem and the plundering of its Temple's treasures.
This occurred in the fifth year of Solomon's son, Rehoboam (1.Kings 14:25).
The influence of David upon Egypt was so strong at this time that we may yet need to take our conclusions deeper than we have done so far. David may not merely have influenced Thutmose I in his proceedings.
David may actually have been Thutmose I!
The upshot of this would be that the Egyptians still remained their conservative, insular selves, doing what they had done for centuries. But Israel had also overflowed upon the land. We may have here a clash of two entirely different cultures. Something somewhat akin (and I would not want to push the analogy too far) to the situation that prevailed for a time with the co-existence in Mexico of the war-like Spaniards and the pyramid-building Aztecs. The former prepared to stop at nothing to impose their religion upon the land's inhabitants. The latter continuing with their rituals and re-writing the inexplicable Spanish phenomenon according to their own religious traditions and folklore.
Some questions immediately arise from this new scenario:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

If David really was Thutmose I, where does that leave Hatshepsut, supposed daughter of Thutmose I?
What is the connection between Solomon's coronation and Hatshepsut's?
Does David really stack up well as Thutmose I, origin-wise, career-wise, age-wise?
Did David conquer and enslave Egypt?
What about the typical Egyptian (and un-David-like) pagan trappings associated with Thutmose I as with the other pharaohs?

These are the questions that one must now begin to answer.
The questions concerning Thutmose I will be tackled first, in I; and those concerning Hatshepsut will be tackled in II.
David as the biblical "Pharaoh
Who was the `pharaoh' of 1.Kings 9:16 who had sacked Gezer as a dowry for his daughter to marry Solomon? Velikovsky had opted for Thutmose I, without his having attempted to make any link between this pharaoh and king David. Metzler likewise has identified this biblical "pharaoh" with Thutmose I, but with the far more interesting aspect to it that Thutmose I was David.[0120] Unfortunately, though, Metzler appears to have confused early campaigns by David (1.Samuel 27:8,9), when Saul was still alive, with the biblical account of the conquest of Gezer, clearly occurring after Saul's death [123]:
[Metzler] "Since King David-Thutmosis I was also the father of Queen Hatshepsut-Sheba, King Solomon refers to her in his Song of Songs (4:10 et passim) as Achoti Kallah `my sister, my spouse!'. This explains, too, how it was possible that the city of Gezer, which King David had conquered, was given to King Solomon as dowry of `Pharaoh's daughter'. When the city of Gezer was destroyed by David Achinoam was already his wife, but he was not yet King of Judah and Israel, because King Saul was still alive [sic] (1.Samuel 27, 3-11) . Hence it is technically correct that the city was conquered by the pharaoh (1.Kings 9, 16), as she is the pharaoh's daughter who made him pharaoh by marriage."
"When David defeated Gezer, he killed all its inhabitants leaving `neither man nor woman alive' (1.Samuel 27, 8 and 9). Likewise, the pharaoh, whose daughter King Solomon married, is reported to have `gone up, and taken Gezer, and burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in the city' (1.Kings 9, 16). Since it was rebuilt and resettled only by King Solomon (1.Kings 9, 15), King David-Thutmosis I must be the pharaoh, who ceded it to him as a wedding present. There is no room for a foreign invasion towards the end of King David's reign, because `the Lord had given him rest round about from all his enemies' (2.Samuel 7, 1). Moreover, it does not make sense to conquer a city just to give it away, as pointed out by Abraham Malamat.[130]
I. Thutmose I as David (More)
To confront point 3 first, about whether David stacks up well as Thutmose I, we know that David was essentially - in career terms - a military man. And that is just what we find with Thutmose I. He was, when he came to the throne,"a middle-aged general" [0140],"with a successful career behind him" [0150]. Indeed he is regarded with the great Thutmose III as amongst the most effective of all Egypt's military pharaohs.
Thutmose I's sons were military men as well, and it is notable that Senenmut - whom I have identified as David's son Solomon in Egypt - is thought to have started his career in the army [0160]. This is what one would expect with David's sons.
One of Thutmose I's sons was actually the military man par excellence [0170]:
Amenmose, the younger but possibly longer-lived son, was accorded the title of 'Great Army Commander', the role now traditionally allocated to the crown prince. Physical bravery had become an important New Kingdom royal attribute and Amenmose was clearly expected to enjoy the hearty lifestyle of the male élite. A broken stela tells us that, during his father's regnal year 4, Amenmose was already hunting wild animals in the Giza desert near the Great Sphinx, a favourite playground of the royal princes.
Thutmose I's origins are not properly known, only guessed at [0180]:
... the new heir to the throne may well have been a descendant of a collateral branch of the royal family. Tuthmosis himself, however, makes no claim to royal blood. His father is never named and remains a man of mystery, although it seems safe to assume that he had been of noble or royal birth.
We know who David's father was: JESSE the Bethlehemite (1.Samuel 16:1), his great-grandfather was Boaz with Ruth his wife and his grandfather was Obed. But this Jesse too remains, like Thutmose I's father, "a man of mystery"; his being "of noble birth" stemming from the fact that he was of the royal tribe of Judah.
King Saul
While J. Tyldesley calls Thutmose I "the new heir to the throne", others have considered his to be more a case - as with Ay and other non-designated officials of great influence - of one who had become too powerful for the crown of Egypt to ignore any longer.
Now this was precisely the situation that had begun to develop between Saul and David. And it would lead to a pathological jealousy on Saul's part. When Saul and David returned home from defeating the Philistines, we learn (1.Samuel 18:6-9):
"…the women came out of all the towns of Israel, singing and dancing … And the women sang to one another as they made merry:
'Saul has killed his thousands,
And David his ten thousands'."
Saul was very angry, for this saying displeased him. He said, 'They have ascribed to David ten thousands, and to me they have ascribed thousands; what more can he have but the kingdom?' So Saul eyed David from that day on."
Whether Saul liked it or not - and he assuredly did not like it - the fact was that David had become co-ruler with him. There was more to it even than that. The revered Samuel had in fact rejected Saul as king and had anointed David son of Jesse in his place. (Cf. 1.Samuel 15:28 & 6:13).
This situation of having two strong kings yoked together, in uncomfortable harness, is reflected, I believe, in the situation at the time in Egypt, leading me to wonder if Amenhotep I might not be Saul himself, co-ruling with Thutmose I as David. Tyldesley tells of at least possible evidence for a co-regency [0190]:
There is some rather weak archaeological evidence to suggest that Amenhotep I may have associated himself in a co-regency with his intended successor. On the wall of the chapel of Amenhotep at Karnak, Tuthmosis I is shown dressed as a king, performing royal tasks and with his name written in the royal cartouche. If, as has been suggested, this scene was commissioned during the lifetime of Amenhotep I, there must have been two kings on the throne at the same time.
But, putting aside David for the moment, under what circumstances had Saul thus managed to bring his influence to bear upon Egypt?
The beginning of an explanation for this is to be found in Velikovsky's reconstruction of history, telling how - as he saw it - the 18th dynasty defeat of the Hyksos (Amu ) was the same war as Saul's defeat of the Amalekites [0200]. Due to the danger posed by this common enemy, Egypt and Israel were now firm allies.
Now, according to the Bible, "Saul defeated the Amalekites, from Havilah as far as Shur, which is east of Egypt." Professor A. Yahuda has identified Havilah (cf. Genesis 2:11), watered by the Pishon (Nile), with those aforementioned regions of fine gold, Koptos, Edfu, and Ombos [0210]. Saul's campaigns had thus taken him deep into Egypt.
Saul would manage to conquer, apart from the formidable Amalekites, "all his enemies on every side - … Moab … the Ammonites … Edom … the kings of Zobah [a Syrian coalition] … and the Philistines" (1.Samuel 14:47; 2.Sam. 8:3; 10:6; Zoba: a portion of Syria east of Coelesyria.). Certainly the Philistines and the Syrians, if not the others, had at that time hundreds upon hundreds of powerful chariots.[211]
So Saul must have been a great king indeed in terms of military power.
It should also be remembered that the 18th dynasty, under Ahmose, was emerging from a long period of native Egyptian subjugation and humiliation at the hands of the Hyksos foreigners. It would not be surprising to find therefore that Saul of Israel might have come to exert some degree of influence over Egypt during the reign of Ahmose. This would only have increased after the latter's death.
There is even a slight possibility that Ahmose was the very Ahimaaz whose daughter Ahinoam Saul had married (1.Samuel 14:50).
Unfortunately, though, we cannot say very much more about Amenhotep I because of the dearth of material about him in textbooks of Egyptian history. And if his body was indeed discovered in 1871 amongst the royal mummies at Deir el-Bahri, then he could not have been Saul who was finally buried at Jabesh in Israel (1.Samuel 31:12-13).
It is at least possible though that Amenhotep I's main theater of operation was in fact Israel, as Saul.
Thutmose Again
Returning to Thutmose I, the reason why he "is shown dressed as a king, performing royal tasks and with his name written in the royal cartouche", together with Amenhotep I, is, I suggest, because he already was a king. He never actually had to be made a king by Amenhotep I, nor by any Egyptian official.
He took, or was given by the Egyptians, the name "son of Ra Thutmose" [0220]; that might translate, in Israelite terminology, as, "Son of God", "Son of Wisdom". David and Solomon are both referred to in the Scriptures as "Son of God" (1.Chronicles 22:6-12). And David was a great lover of wisdom, having instructed his son to pray for wisdom (V.12). David can therefore claim a good deal of the credit for Solomon's own renowned wisdom.
Thutmose I is thought to "have bolstered his claim to the throne by marrying Ahmes [Ahmose], the sister of Amenophis [Amenhotep]I" [0230]. However, even that presumed link with Amenhotep I is not certainly established, according to Tyldesley [0240]:
King Tuthmosis I was married to a lady named Ahmose, a popular female name in New Kingdom Egypt. There is some disagreement over the origins of this lady, with some authorities classing her as a daughter of Amenhotep I and others placing her as the daughter of Ahmose and Ahmose Nefertari and therefore a full sister of Amenhotep I. Whatever her parentage, until recently all experts were in agreement that Ahmose must have been a princess of the royal blood, and that Tuthmosis must have married her in order to make his position as king even more secure. …
But, Tyldesley continues, one cannot even be certain that Ahmose herself was of royal blood [0250]:
However, Queen Ahmose, who bears the title of 'King's Sister' (senet nesu) is never accorded the more important title of 'King's Daughter' (sat nesu). The Egyptians were not generally shy of recording their ranks and achievements, and this unusual reticence may therefore be an indication that Ahmose was not the daughter of a king, and by extension that she could not be either the daughter or the sister of Amenhotep I. Instead, she may actually have been the sister or half-sister of Tuthmosis I.
Or, alternatively,"she may actually have been" one of David's own Israelite wives. For instance, Ahinoam the Jezreelite, whose name has at least the first element (Ahi, 'brother of') in common with Ahmose.
Was she even previously Ahinoam the wife of Saul, and hence already a Queen of Israel before David had married her? If so, then there is no reason to presume that David had gone beyond Israel, to Egypt, to marry a foreign wife.
First Conclusion
Thutmose I certainly matches David therefore in career-type, approximate age and non-royal Egyptian background though a king.

And his chronology fits extremely well, too, in regard to Senenmut's being Solomon.
With neither Thutmose I nor his wife Ahmose unequivocally of Egyptian royal blood, or of certain origin, we are left free to pursue our idea that Thutmose I was indeed David.
David and Solomon Were Late Bronze Age Kings
Peter James and David Rohl, British revisionists, have each proposed that an ivory found at Megiddo, one of Solomon's forts in Israel, "showing a monarch holding court", may actually be a depiction of Solomon himself and his queen in Egyptian guise.
Megiddo it should be noted was one of Solomon's great forts in northern Israel, where Solomon had, writes James [2010], built a "monumental palace compound" (1.Kings 9:15). And it was at the site of Megiddo that the "material culture of Palestine at the end of the Late Bronze Age [Solomon's era by the revision] is best seen". The ivory plaque, says James:
... is of particular interest. [The monarch] is seated on a throne decorated with sphinxes. If it was intended to represent a specific rather than an idealized ruler, would it be too much to imagine that in this ivory we actually have a depiction of the Egyptianized King Solomon?
Now Rohl (who has apparently fallen out so badly with James that they no longer refer to each other's writings) gives his descriptive account of this amazing item [2020], arriving at the same sort of conclusion as had James:
To the right the king arrives in his chariot, driving before him Shasu captives; in the center is an intimate cameo of the same ruler, seated upon his throne with his queen and lyre player standing before him; to the left, behind the king, two courtiers attend to the royal couple's needs. Now let us pick out what might be interpreted as Egyptian elements in the scene. First, above the chariot horses is a winged sun-disk; second, the queen offers a lotus flower to her husband; and third the king is seated upon a throne, the sides of which are guarded by winged sphinxes (i.e. human-headed lions). Surrounding the monarch we see three doves - a well known motif of peace, Solomon married an Egyptian princess; he had 'a great ivory throne' made for him which was protected by 'lions' on either side [1.Kings 10:18-20]; his traditional name means 'peaceful'.
Solomon's Hebrew name, Shelomoh - said to derive from shalom ('peace') - may indeed be said to mean 'peaceful'. Dr. Metzler though, in his inimitable fashion, argues that Solomon is partly an Egyptian name, derived from she-El Amon (sounds like a bit of a hybrid).
So far, I have not successfully managed to find any sort of connection between the names Solomon and Senenmut (whom I have nonetheless identified as the one person). The name Senenmut, Egyptian sn-n-mwt, depicted in hieroglyphs below, means:
"Brother of the mother."
"Brother of the mother" is not a particularly helpful concept, and I can in no way adapt it to the name Solomon. (Although it may pertain to some other name of Solomon's for he had apparently several names, e.g. he was also known as Jedidiah, 2.Samuel 12:25). However, we saw in "Solomon and Sheba" that Senenmut liked to manipulate the Egyptian hieroglyphs, for example creating cryptograms in regard to Hatshepsut's throne name, Makera (meaning "True is the Heart of Ra"). Perhaps he, as the crafty and intellectual Solomon, had adapted Egyptian names to Hebrew ones in Metzler-ian style. If so, the name Senenmut may be more cryptic than has so far been appreciated.

The Megiddo Ivory discussed above may well be a depiction of the famous Solomon and his Egyptian queen (Hatshepsut according to this reconstruction). But even if it is not, I propose that we have contemporary representations of king Solomon in the sketch of Senenmut, and in the statues (the latter including his daughter, Neferure) as found in many books.

Egypt Garrisoned
The Israel of Saul's and David's day had begun to overflow into the fertile land of Egypt, and even beyond, into Ethiopia (Nubia). Campaigns into Nubia were already being conducted in the days of Thutmose I's predecessor, Amenhotep I, whose Viceroy in that southern land was Turi.
Thutmose I, immediately upon his accession - according to P. Montet - sent notification of this to the Viceroy of Nubia, Thuroy (likely the Turi of Amenhotep I's reign) [0260]. One would imagine that Thuroy's scribes in Nubia would have quickly set to work glorifying the new pharaoh in their traditional terms, which would of course have had no likenesses to David's own Yahwistic protocol or standard inscriptions.
A few years later Thutmose I's armies would actually appear in the land of Nubia, setting up there a string of garrisons. Tyldesley tells of the pharaoh's campaigns [0270]:
The former general Tuthmosis I soon proved himself a worthy successor to the newly established tradition of the mighty Egyptian warrior-king, embarking on a series of flamboyant and highly successful foreign campaigns intended to impress Egyptian superiority on the traditional enemies of the south and north. In his second regnal year the Egyptian troops marched southwards into Nubia, where, as Ahmose, son of Baba, tells us, they successfully 'destroyed insurrection throughout the lands and repelled the intruders from the desert region', advancing past the Third Cataract of the Nile, where Tuthmosis set up a stela to commemorate his great achievement , and reaching the island of Argo. ….
He left behind him a subdued land controlled by a chain of Egyptian fortresses stretching across Nubia and the Sudan.
…This was followed by an even more spectacular victory. After establishing new military headquarters at the old northern capital of Memphis, Tuthmosis pressed eastwards into Naharin, crossing the River Euphrates and entering the territory ruled by Egypt's new [sic] enemy, the King of Mitanni. Here, as the ever-present Ahmose records:
[His Majesty] went to Retenu to vent his wrath throughout foreign lands. His Majesty arrived at Naharin. His Majesty - life, prosperity and health be upon him - found that the enemy was gathering troops. Then his Majesty made a great heap of corpses among them. Countless were the living captives of his Majesty from his victories. Lo, I was at the head of the army and his Majesty saw my bravery. I brought away a chariot, its horse, and the one who was upon it as a living captive to present to his Majesty. I was rewarded with gold yet again.
After a great battle with many of the enemy killed or taken prisoner, Tuthmosis laid down the foundations of what was later to develop into Egypt's Asian Empire. Once again a commemorative stela was needed, this time to be set on the bank of the River Euphrates.
These last-mentioned campaigns "eastwards", into Retenu and Mitanni, fit very well with David's conquests of his most formidable enemies, the Philistines and the Syrians; if Retenu be taken as Lower Retenu - that is, the Shephelah coastal plain where the Philistines dwelt - and if I am right in my previous identification of Mitanni with Syria (to the borders of Assyria).[278] According to Montet [0280]: "Tuthmosis I derived great satisfaction from the fact that, during his reign, Egyptian messengers could travel the length and breadth of Syria without being molested."
We can thus conclude, regarding point 4, that David as Thutmose I had effectively conquered Egypt even as far as Nubia and the Sudan.
There is nothing of this in the Scriptures, however. No garrison in Memphis or garrisons in Nubia are mentioned amongst the other garrisons the conquering David (or his generals) are said to have set up in subjugated territories, e.g. in Syria, and all throughout Edom (2.Samuel 8:6,13). But Scripture is strangely silent anyway about Egypt. Moses tells us absolutely nothing of his career in Egypt. And the Egyptian (el-Amarna) rule over C9th BC Palestine is nowhere directly alluded to, though shrewd research has been able to bring the subtle pieces of the puzzle together. Incredibly, too, Solomon's huge influence over Egypt, as Senenmut, is passed over in the Bible in a verse or two. These matters were apparently of little interest to the biblical scribes.
Since the Bible gives no indication whatsoever of David's having ever left Israel for any period of time to rule Egypt, the extent of his 'rule' there may have been via garrisons commanded by his own officials (by proxy), amongst whom there were many heroes of great military skill (2.Samuel 23:8-39).
Thutmose III would later reverse all this, so that Egypt would in his day come to rule Syro-Palestine through its own garrisons and governors of choice.
Names
Contemporary names of Egyptian officials, like the enduring Ineni [0290] for instance, could actually turn out to be Israelite, e.g. Hananiah. David also had plenty of sons from various wives to whom he could give official posts abroad (I Chronicles 3:1-9). Basically though the early kings of Israel, presuming they actually had garrisoned Egypt/Ethiopia, would have found it convenient to retain in place Egypt's own cumbersome bureaucracy.
Inscriptions
Indeed it is hardly likely that David would have been able to maintain a strong personal influence in Nubia so far to the south, and even for that matter in Thebes. And this may in part explain our point 5, how Thutmose I's inscriptions, if he were David, could be of the usual pagan formula, without much sign of modification. Johnny Zwick has provided the following useful explanation in regard to the practicality of this [0300]:
"… inscriptions, attributions, ceremonial utterances, ushabtis and idolatrous items were produced quite automatically, without the 'kings' specific instructions, even if these inscriptions state he instructed them.
If such a thing was possible, Thutmose I being David, that would shed new light on the meaning of Egyptian inscriptions in the sense that they were 'canned' texts, automatically applied by trained artists based on traditions and quite automatically, without prompting or input by the ruler(s) him/themselves.
It would also shed light on how 'important' persons were regarded/honored even if non-native … even though we don't find that stated but logically implied.
It may also reveal a tolerance of Israelites on Egyptian ways in the name of these good relations and perhaps a hope of being a witness to them."
Later we are going to see too how Hatshepsut 're-worked' Thutmose I's inscriptions.
Ruling by proxy, through his ever-growing military and religious bureaucracy, David's Israeli influence must have increased greatly in Egypt upon the death of pharaoh Amenhotep I, after which he himself was regarded as the pharaoh for about ten to fifteen years. But these years may in part also have coincided with the late phase of David's reign in Israel, which were troublesome years of revolt against him, even by his own son Absalom (2.Samuel 13: 25-30), and towards the end of which David himself had begun to degenerate into senility.
Despite his undoubted power and success, Thutmose I (like Amenhotep I) is usually skimmed over in a few pages in Egyptian history books. The fact is that we do not know terribly much about him, and much of what we do know is post-mortem, through the testimony of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III who so greatly admired him. We do know that during the reign of Thutmose I building in the Valley of the Kings was firstly undertaken, chapels and obelisks were built. We know about his military campaigns. Thutmose I even concluded his war on Mitanni with an elephant hunt. This fits what we had seen on a previous occasion, that elephants were roaming Syria at the time, no doubt brought in from the great mercantile expeditions that were being conducted by the Phoenicians. [0310]
Perhaps David never lost that youthful instinct as a hunter of which he had once spoken to Saul, in the face of Goliath's arrogance (1.Samuel 17:34-36):
'Your servant used to keep sheep for his father; and whenever a lion or a bear came, and took a lamb from the flock, I went after it and struck it down, rescuing the lamb from its mouth; and if it turned against me, I would catch it by the jaw, strike it down, and kill it. Your servant has killed both lions and bears; and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be like one of them, since he has defied the armies of the living God'.
The Cruelty Factor
The Egyptian army returning from the early Nubian campaign wanted it made known that it was not one to be messed with [0320]: "The new king sailed home in triumph with the body of a Nubian bowman, a dreadful warning to others who might be tempted to rebel, draped 'head down over the bow of his majesty's ship, the Falcon'." Thutmose I's apparent cruelty in torturing and slaying enemies was not - it has to be said - out of place in David's régime, whether David was personally responsible or only by proxy. David and his officials could be cruel, or mutilating, by our standards. Had not David himself fulfilled Saul's demand for 100 Philistine foreskins in order to win the hand of Michal, Saul's prize daughter (1.Samuel 18:25, 27)?
Similarly, Ahmose son of Ibana, present at the siege of Avaris, boasted of having, as Tyldesley explains [0330]:
"… brought away from there as plunder two women and a hand. …."
When Ahmose writes of capturing a hand he is referring to the practice of amputating a hand, or on some occasions the penis [foreskin], of a dead enemy so that the true scale of the victory could be assessed.
There are plenty of bloodthirsty incidents associated with David and his armies. Here for instance is 2 Samuel's account of David's stern treatment of the defeated Moabites (8:2):
[David] also defeated the Moabites and, making them lie down on the ground, measured them off with a cord; he measured two lengths of cord for those who were to be put to death, and one length for those who were to be spared. And the Moabites became servants to David and brought tribute.[0340]
This is all the more surprising when one considers that the king of Moab had earlier permitted David to shelter his parents in Moab (1.Samuel 22:3-4).
Nor was David's commander, Joab, setting a precedent by killing all the Edomite males (1.Kings 11:15). David had, in earlier times, determined to annihilate all the males serving the testy Nabal, until Abigail prudently intervened to save the situation (1.Samuel 25:22-25).
Animals were not spared either. During his war with Hadadezer the Syrian: "David hamstrung all the chariot horses, but left enough for a hundred chariots" (2.Samuel 8:4).
Did not God finally tell his "beloved" (the meaning of David) servant: "You shall not build a house [Temple] for my Name, for you are a warrior and have shed blood" (1.Chronicles 28:3)?
But it seems that some of David's generals were too inhumane and merciless even for David. After Joab had murdered Saul's noble general, Abner, David would lament: "Today I am powerless, even though anointed king; these men, the sons of Zeruiah [Joab's mother], are too violent for me" (2.Samuel 3:39).

Egyptian vs Israelite Law: Contacts of Israel with Egypt from the time of King Saul to Solomon.

Purpose: Showing the Egyptian background to some affairs and events in the life of King Saul and David:
1. Saul achieved victory over the Amalekites at the River of Egypt (1.Sam. 15).
2. The Hebrew prophets [Samuel, Achijah (1.Kings 11:29) and Shemaiah (1.Kings 12:22)] fullfilled the function of state lawyers, experts, who could foresee legal consequences, or judges who knew what the courts would do and gave their advice on the basis of their professional know-how. (Exodus 18:13-26; 1.Sam. 7:15-17; See E. Metzler at `http://moziani.tripod.com/dynasty/ammm_2_1.htm')
3. Chief judges were called in Hebrew `Elohim' who `judged/shaphat' the people. `Elohim' in this legal usage does not mean `God'. The King James Version translates `Elohim' in Exodus 22:8 with `Dayanim' (English: judges). So the witch of Endor (1.Sam. 28:11ff) describes the `Elohim' judge as an old man with a mantle (Samuel).
[Exodus 22:8; "... he shall be brought unto the `judges'", `elohim' is gods in the ordinary sense, but specifically used of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to `magistrates'; and sometimes as a superlative to angels, judges, mighty, great, exceeding. Why Hebrew words can have so many meanings is explained here.]
Of course some even today claim they have encounters with biblical personalities of long ago. They claim they have seances and the like. All of these are being deceived by the master of deception.
4. Ancient 18th Dynasty Egypt permitted marriages between brothers and sisters in conjunction with matrilineal succession based on historical facts [450].
5. The Kingdom of Egypt was inherited by the eldest daughter of pharaoh, who had to marry her own brother in order to continue the dynasty. Alan Gardiner states that Thutmose II is shown accompamied by Queen Ahmose, the widow of Thutmose I, and by her daughter the `king's great wife' Hashepsowe/Hatshepsut [460], but read on.
6. In the Hebrew society marriage between brother and sister was unlawful and a sin. (Gen. 12:13, 19; 20:2; Lev. 20:17; Deut. 27:22)
7. Egypt is surrounded on every side by desert and relatively poor desert dwellers. Only in the east-to-northerly direction was an industrious people of considerable economical interest to Egypt. [Click here for a discussion on Punt.]
8. It was of paramount importance for Israel and native Egyptians to overcome their Amalekite/Hyksos occupiers if they wanted once again be masters of their own destiny.
9. According to history books, Ahhotep (II) was the daughter of Ahmose I and his wife Ahmose-Nefertari. Amenophis I was her brother and husband.
10. Amenhotep I died without an heir but a baby mummy was found with insignia identifying the body as a child of Amenhotep I. [See: http://www.touregypt.net/who/Ahhotep2.htm]
11. The name of the wife of King Saul was Ahinoam [0500], daughter of Ahimaaz [0510] (1.Sam. 14:50), whom he married at the beginning of his reign and one of the places they lived in was a fortress at Beth-Shan. Their palace fortress was at Gibeah (Tel el Ful), just north of Jerusalem. Ahinoam bore Saul 3 sons, Jonathan, Ishui, Melchishua, and two daughters, Merab and Michal, 1.Sam. 14:49.
12. The Goliath incident happened about in the 27th year of King Saul, when David was in his mid teens. Jonathan was at this time already a grown man and Ahinoam, Saul's wife, must have been by that time ca. 43 years of age. At the death of King Saul she would be ca. 56 years old.
13. The Bible tells us the names of the wives of David, Ahinoam and Abigail (1.Sam. 25:40,43). Who was Ahinoam, ostensibly the second wife of David? If she was Ahinoam, the wife of King Saul, David married Ahinoam before the death of King Saul according to 1.Samuel 25:43. If David did not immediately marry Ahinoam in a marriage of succession but kept her until the death of Saul, she would have been a ca. 56 year old woman. Could she have born him a son (Amnon) at that age (2.Sam. 3:2)? Or should we assume that she was, lets say, nine years of age when she married Saul and so, would have been 49 at the time when David married her? While today it is rare, women at that age can at times still bear a child according to medical reports.[515] If Ahinoam, wife of David, was not the Ahinoam, the former wife of King Saul, it may remain a question if she could have been a daughter or other close family member of Saul's Ahinoam.

Ahinoam (means `pleasant brother', Young's Concordance) could be read according to Egyptian thought as `Ahhotep' were `hotep' means `pleasant' [See #8]. She had a son by the Egyptian name of `Amnon', David's eldest son (2.Sam. 3:2). When trying to marry Tamar, his sister, Amnon acted according to Egyptian customs. Amnon could also be read as Amon-On, referring to the Egyptian god Amon in the city of On (Genesis 41:45, 50; 46:20).


Question: If Ahimaaz was Pharaoh Ahmosis, why does the Bible never call Ahimaaz/Ahmose, father of Ahinoam, a pharaoh? Two reasons may perhaps explain this question:
1. A weaker reason may be this, 2.Chronicles 35:20 introduces Necho as "Necho, King of Egypt...". In Vers 22 we read simply, "... hearkened not unto the words of Necho from ...".
Of course we still know from Vers 20 that this Necho is a king, but not writing the title again does occur here in the Book of Chronicles.
2. Today we think of Ahmose as a Pharaoh, but according to our revision, he did not become king until within the last 2 years of King Saul's reign. We may not be far off in suggesting that it took some unknown time span for Ahmose to ascertain his kingship over his own people, much more so, to become known as king to other people like the Israelites.



14. Samuel ordered a ban not to take spoils from the Amalekites.[0520]
15. Saul's breach of promise to David precipitated his ruin since his prospective son-in-law David had already been selected and anointed as king over Israel. (1.Sam. 16:13)
16. Although Saul had 3 sons and 2 daughters by Ahinoam (1.Sam. 14:49), conflict between Egyptian and Israelite laws prevented him from establishing his own dynasty.
17. Under the law of matrilineal succession, whoever married his firstborn daughter Merab would become Saul's successor according to Egyptian practices.
a) If Saul wanted one of his sons to succeed him, the son (Jonathan) would have to marry his sister or even his mother in an incestuous marriage which was not acceptable according to Israelite standards.
b) At first Saul promised to give his eldest daughter to David (1.Sam. 18:17).
c) When Saul realized that the prophets slated David to be the next king, he gave Merab to one named Adriel the Meholathite (1.Sam. 18:19).
d) Consequently instead of marrying Merab, David married Saul's younger daughter Michal (1.Sam. 18:17-27).
e) This breach of promise became a reason for the downfall of Saul's reign, since David had already been selected as the prospective son-in-law and had been anointed to be the next king (1.Sam. 16:13) to succeed Saul after he died (1.Sam. 26:10).
f) By marrying Michal, David had no claim to the throne according to Egyptian standards which, however, would not have affected the opinion of faithful Israelite prophets.
g) Saul continued to try and kill David (1.Sam. 20:31) since he wanted Jonathan to be king - (who probably could speak Egyptian since he was the son of an Egyptian mother, and who probably understood Egyptian and Israelite laws better than his father and therefore knew that according to Israelite law he could not be king, (1.Sam. 23:17; Exodus 34:16; Deuteronomy 18:14-17) but be only David's closest friend, 1.Sam. 18:3; 20:16-42).
h) David's wife Michal loved him and her brother Jonathan, and helped David to escape out of a window of Saul's fortress palace to flee to the Philistines, 1.Sam. 19:12.
i) Although David could have killed Saul, he instead took his wife Achinoam away from Jezreel (located at Beth-Shan, at the junction of the Jordan and Jezreel valley), where the Israelites stayed (1.Sam. 29:1; 25:43).[0530]

Assumption: The Achinoam whom David married was Achinoam, wife of Saul.
j) This was a give and take: If Saul gave away David's wife, David had reason to retaliate by taking Saul's wife.
k) After Saul's death, David got Michal back from her brother Ish-Boshet (2.Sam. 3:14-16) and kept Achinoam.
l) Saul was angry towards Jonathan because Saul realized that David would end up marrying his Egyptian wife Achinoam. He realized that the promiscuity of a matrilineal (Egyptian) society would make this possible and that David would not be beyond doing this for later he would not hesitate to take the life of a woman's husband to make her his own wife (2.Sam. 11:2-27).
m) These serious legal problems of international marriages between an Israelite with an Egyptian princess were foreseeable to the Hebrew prophets.[540]
n) Saul had also 2 sons by his concubine Rizpah, a daughter of Aiah, who, we assume, was the Amalekite/Hyksos king Agag/Apophis (`Aiah' being a Hebrew corruption of saying Agog). Their names were Armoni and Mephibosheth (2.Sam. 21:6-10 Egyptian sounding names[550]). At some point in time all the sons of Rizpah and Michal (Saul's daughters) were hanged.
o) According to Israelite law, since David had married the widow of Saul, he could be king. This is demonstrated in the case of Adonijah, who was executed for treason by Solomon, because he had tried to marry David's widow Abishag of Shunem (1.Kings 2:22-25). Similarly, Saul's son Ish-Boshet, who reigned as king for 2 years (2.Sam. 2:10), felt challenged by Abner's affair with his father's concubine Rizpah (2.Sam. 3:7-10), possibly a daughter of Agag (misspelled Aiah), the last Amalekite king defeated by Saul and executed by Samuel (1.Sam. 15:32, 33).
p) The clash between Egyptian and Israelite law became evident in the lives of Saul and David because of their own actions and that of their children.
q) On what basis prophesied Samuel that the kingdom would be taken away from Saul? (1.Sam. 15:28; 28:17) On the same basis that the prophet Achijah the Shilonite predicted that Solomon's kingdom would be taken away from him (1.Kings 11:11-13, 31-32), and Jeroboam would rule over 10 tribes. Samuel and Achijah were both talking about laws governing inheritance [570]. Saul, David and Solomon had married into a matrilineal society. In doing so they followed the example of Abraham who also had marital relations with an Egyptian woman, Hagar. (Genesis 16:1) However, these actions occurred as a consequence to lack of faith in Yehova's instructions and the later consequences bore out the severity disobedience brought about when he (Abraham) acted on his own impulses. Peoples behavior toward each other and faith or lack of it toward the Great I Am were, and still are, inseparable from God's claim on humanity. As King David later freely admitted it, "Only a fool says there is no God." (Psalm 14:1)
False charges leveled against the Innocent were used throughout history
r) Saul had represented David as a traitor and a conspirator, lying in wait to take the life of the king, that he might possess the kingdom himself. The king had represented the matter to the people in such a light that it seemed necessary to deprive David of his life, that the prosperity of Israel might be preserved (1.Sam. 18:8-11,29; 19:1, 9,10; 20:31,32; 23:8,9). - Saul was chasing David around in the wilderness seeking to take his life. Generally when someone is doing this they have a pretext for doing it because it is not going to look very good to the people and the nation. Pretexts of this nature seem usually to make sense so it will look good to the people and so Saul tried to set up David as a traitor and conspirator, saying that he was laying in wait to kill the king so that he could become the new king.
s) The Prophet Jeremiah had false charges leveled against him. - Tidings of the words of Jeremiah were carried to the princes of Judah, and they hastened from the palace of the king to the temple, to learn for themselves the truth of the matter. "Then spake the priests and the prophets unto the princes and to all the people, saying, This man is worthy to die; for he hath prophesied against this city, as ye have heard with your ears." Jer. 26:11. But Jeremiah stood boldly before the princes and the people, declaring: "The Lord sent me to prophesy against this house and against this city all the words that ye have heard. Therefore now amend your ways and your doings, and obey the voice of the Lord your God; and the Lord will repent Him of the evil that He hath pronounced against you. As for me, behold, I am in your hand: do with me as seemeth good and meet unto you. But know ye for certain, that if ye put me to death, ye shall surely bring innocent blood upon yourselves, and upon this city, and upon the inhabitants thereof: for of a truth the Lord hath sent me unto you to speak all these words in your ears." Verses 12-15.
The elders also united in protesting against the decision of the priests regarding the fate of Jeremiah. They cited the case of Micah, who had prophesied judgments upon Jerusalem, saying,"Zion shall be plowed like a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest." And they asked: "Did Hezekiah king of Judah and all Judah put him at all to death? did he not fear the Lord, and besought the Lord, and the Lord repented Him of the evil which He had pronounced against them? Thus might we procure great evil against our souls." Jeremiah 18,19. Through the pleading of these men of influence the prophet's life was spared, although many of the priests and false prophets, unable to endure the condemning truths he uttered, would gladly have seen him put to death on the plea of sedition. [See also the trial of Jesus and the false charges against him, Luke 23:2,5; and the apostles, Acts 17:7; 24:5. These types of charges were also used by Francis I., King of France, as the reason why he burned to death many Protestants in his country. As people interested in history we should take note of these things because such exact charges will be placed against innocent people, again and again, even in diverse places for they are inspired by Satan.

Thutmose I's Burial and His Descendants
Had archaeologists found beyond any shadow of doubt Thutmose I's body in Egypt then that fact would spell the end of this reconstruction, since David was buried in Jerusalem (1.Kings 2:10). Thus it is a relieve to learn that Thutmose I's (empty?) 'coffin' was later borrowed by Pinedjem I (about 2 centuries after David by my revision), and that this has caused confusion [0600]: "It is obvious that Tuthmosis' body must have been separated from its coffin before Pinedjem was buried. This must cast serious doubt upon the mummy tentatively identified as that of Tuthmosis I …."
The whole conventional reconstruction of the life and death of Thutmose I starts to look like a series of uncertainties.
And, even regarding Thutmose I's progeny, one cannot be definitive due to a paucity of evidence. Thus Tyldesley [0610]:
There is some confusion over the number of children actually born to Tuthmosis I and his consort, Queen Ahmose. We know of two daughters, Princess Hatshepsut and her sister Princess Akhbetneferu … who died in infancy.
We also have firm historical evidence that Tuthmosis I fathered two sons, the princes Wadjmose and Amenmose, and possibly a third son, Prince Ramose.
Thutmose I's sons, princes Wadjmose and Amenmose, are thought - on the basis of no concrete evidence - to have predeceased their father. That is certainly a Davidic trait, with one of the great king's sorrows having been the untimely deaths of several of his much-loved, but unruly sons. But Tyldesley thinks it even possible, based on chronological difficulties, that none of these three sons was in fact Queen Ahmose's [0620]:
However, the apparent discrepancy in ages strongly suggests that Amenmose and Wadjmose, and perhaps the ephemeral Ramose, may not in fact have been the children of Ahmose but of an earlier [sic] wife, possibly the mysterious Lady Mutnofret who features alongside Wadjmose in his father's funerary chapel.
I suspect that this last interpretation is the correct one.
I suggest that Mutnofret was the same person as Hatnofer on the basis of the exchangeable names, the mother of Senenmut (Solomon), i.e., Beersheba. It is thought that Mutnofret was a concubine of pharaoh - a woman of secondary importance with respect to Ahmose - who was the mother of Thutmose II. The fact, however, may rather be that she herself was an important queen, Bathsheba. This Bathsheba bore David four sons:
"And these were born unto him in Jerusalem; Shimea, Shobab, Nathan and Solomon, four, of Bathshua the daughter of Ammiel." 1.Chronicles 3:5
Amenmose as son of Mutnofret, commander of the army, may not have predeceased his father at all. His name Amenmose may simply be another name for (the equally interchangeable) name Thutmose [II], the pharaoh who would succeed Thutmose I and whose wife was the famous Hatshepsut, his half-sister.
II. Thutmose II and Hatshepsut
In previous revisions I have argued that Solomon was Senenmut who came to exercise so profound an influence in Hatshepsut's Egypt upon the death of her husband, Thutmose II. I have also followed Velikovsky's view that Hatshepsut was herself the biblical queen (Sheba) who visited Solomon in Jerusalem at the peak of his power and wisdom there. I have tried to place this visit into a context, by proposing that it was the occasion of Solomon's marriage to his Egyptian queen, whom I have identified with Neferure, daughter of Thutmose II and Hatshepsut[0630]; the latter two being Solomon's parents-in-law. Neferure would have been only a child at the time, which I took to be a permissible situation within the structure of ancient royal planned marriages. I have since learned that Thutmose III himself married a child-bride, Meritre-Hatsheput [II], who became the mother of Amenhotep II.[632]
Where this new revision is leading is that Hatshepsut's husband and daughter, Generations from Saul through David at least, linked with Solomon by law, were in fact his relatives as well, all descendants of David (as Thutmose I). They may have had little or no Egyptian blood in them. Thutmose II was thus David's son, possibly through Bathsheba. Hatshepsut, who claimed to be the daughter of Thutmose I, may have been David's daughter through another wife, say Ahinoam, making her her husband's half-sister. Neferure would therefore be David's grand-daughter. Whilst Thutmose III, son of Thutmose II, would be a grandson of David.
All very complex, but also typical of the strong tendency that we have seen for Israelites to marry, not only into their own tribe, but also into their own family (e.g. Tobit's Naphtalians; Judith's Simeonites; now David's Judaeans).
Presuming that Hatshepsut was not telling fibs in claiming to be the daughter of Thutmose I - and certainly the Egyptians would have known if she were - then where is the mention of her in the Scriptures, as a daughter of David? Actually the Scriptures do not tell us much about David's daughters, only his sons. An exception is the unfortunate incident of the beautiful Tamar, sister of Absalom, who was raped by David's oldest son, Amnon, who later paid for it at the hand of Absalom, Amnon's half-brother (2.Samuel 13:1-33).
We learn of no daughter of David's who was in her youth - as Hatshepsut must have been - in the latter part of David's reign. One interesting girl is mentioned at the time, Abishag, but she is nowhere said to have been David's daughter; though she could legitimately claim from the context to have been his adopted daughter.
See later discussion on Egyptian's wide use of the term, "father."
But let's get back to the star attraction of this article: Hatshepsut. What were her beginnings?
The Origins of Abishag - Princess Hatshepsut
Here I am going to propose something entirely new. I am going to argue that Hatshepsut was the beautiful Abishag, who warmed the bed of king David in his old age (1.Kings 1:1-4). It may be interesting, in the context of Hatshepsut's being ever desirous of emphasizing her 'divine birth', that the name 'Abishag' (its meaning though disputed) may mean "The Divine Father" [640].
Her 'divine birth' may have been Hatshepsut's way of indicating that she was, like David, a child of God, and that God had (through the agency of her father) chosen her to be ruler. The typical interpretation of Hatshepsut's 'divine conception' as recorded on her Deir el-Bahri temple, may perhaps be inadequate, if not seen as symbolic. The Egyptian use of concrete imagery, e.g. the graphic image of Amen-Re having sexual intercourse with Hatshepsut's mother, may actually have been the only way that the Egyptian scribes were able to express the more abstract Israelite notion of divine election. Having located the start of the story of her conception in heaven, Hatshepsut then proceeds to tell how Amen-Re came to Queen Ahmose (Ah-hotep) in the guise of Thutmose I. The child, shaped by Khnum on the potter's wheel, was herself divine (we might say, heavenly) in appearance. Thus Joyce Tyldesley [650]:
"I will shape for thee thy daughter … I will make her appearance above the gods, because of her dignity as King of Upper and Lower Egypt". Such a description of heavenly beauty was certainly apt in the case of Abishag. And it may therefore also be applicable to Hatshepsut, who boasted of her goddess-like looks [660]:
Her Majesty grew beyond everything; to look upon her was more beautiful than anything; her form was like a god, she did everything as a god; Her Majesty was a maiden, beautiful, blooming, But in her time. She made her divine form to flourish, by favour of him that fashioned her.
Here is the first part of Abishag's biography, as narrated in 1.Kings 1:1-4:
King David was old and advanced in years; and although they covered him with clothes, he could not get warm. So his servants said to him, 'Let a young virgin be sought for my lord the king, and let her wait on the king, and be his attendant; let her lie in your bosom, so that the lord my king may be warm'. So they searched for a beautiful girl throughout all the territory of Israel, and found Abishag the Shunammite, and brought her to the king. The girl was very beautiful. She became the king's attendant and served him, but the king did not know her sexually.
Enyclopaedia Judaïca makes this important comment regarding David's young nurse:
"Some see in Abishag, who is described as "very fair" (1.Kings 1:4), the Shulammite of the Song of Songs (= Shunammite)". Now a Song of Songs connection here would be most significant, because we have already learned from Hyam Maccoby that the Songs' leading female was Hatshepsut/Sheba herself, also described as a Shunammite. Was Hatshepsut therefore the beautiful Abishag, who could at least be termed - as in the Song of Songs - Solomon's 'sister', due to her intimate connection with Solomon's father? Metzler writes [2060]: "… King Solomon refers to her in his Song of Songs (4:10 et passim) as Achoti Kallah"my sister, my spouse …". A fortiori Abishag would have been Solomon's 'sister' if she were in fact Hatshepsut (who we have determined to have been the daughter of David/Thutmose I). This leads to the question: Did the servants of the ageing David have to 'interview' every single appropriate girl in Israel for this duty of David's nurse, or did they confine their search only to princess daughters of David?
This last sounds the more reasonable.
Why was it necessary that the girl picked for this purpose be beautiful? According to Enyclopedia Judaïca[0670], it was "in the hope that her fresh beauty would induce some warmth in the old man." E.J. also makes the important comment that [0680]:"Some see in Abishag, who is described as "very fair" (1.Kings 1:4), the Shulammite of the Song of Songs (= Shunammite)." Did the servants of the ageing David have to 'interview' every single appropriate girl in Israel for this duty, or did they confine their search only to princesses? Abishag, hailing as she did from Shunem, may have been the daughter of 'Ahinoam the Jezreelite'; for Shunem and Jezreel face each other in northern Israel.
Whatever Abishag's origins, she appears to have made a huge impact on the palace at Jerusalem - especially if she were Solomon's beloved 'Shunammite'. And when Solomon's older brother Adonijah's overt play for the throne, not long before David's death, was foiled by David and Bathsheba, Adonijah tried a more subtle tack after David had died. He bade Bathsheba ask Solomon to give him Abishag for his wife, thus tying her up with the intrigue that surrounded the succession to the throne. In fact Abishag had been present when David had promised Bathsheba that her son Solomon would succeed him (1.Kings 1:15-31). Solomon was furious at this request from his older brother, assuming that such a marriage would in effect give Adonijah the throne, and so Solomon had him put to death (1.Kings 2:17, 22-25).
The youthful Abishag thus looms as a very powerful and important figure by now in the palace of Jerusalem; having been intimately connected with the great David, she was close to his successor, Solomon, and the powerful Bathsheba. Moreover, princes desired her. One wonders why Solomon did not marry her.
His claim, as Senenmut, to have been already close to Hatshepsut "from her youth" now makes perfect sense in this new context.
Abishag, hailing as she did from Shunem, may well have been the daughter of David's wife (taken from king Saul) 'Ahinoam the Jezreelite' (Shunem and Jezreel face each other in northern Israel), the daughter of pharaoh Ahmose. Abishag would thus have been a part-Egyptian, part-Israelite princess. Whatever Abishag's origins, she appears to have made a huge impact on the palace at Jerusalem - especially if she were Solomon's beloved 'Shunammite'. And after Solomon's older brother Adonijah had made his overt play for the throne - not long before David's death - but was foiled by David and Bathsheba, he then tried a more subtle tack after David had died. He bade Queen Bathsheba ask Solomon to give him Abishag for his wife, thus tying her up with the intrigue that surrounded the succession to the throne. In fact Abishag had been present when David had promised Bathsheba that her son Solomon would succeed him (1.Kings 1:15-31).
No doubt Solomon had fully expected that the girl would be his own wife.
Anyway, Solomon was livid at this request from his older brother, assuming that such a marriage would in effect give Adonijah the throne, and so Solomon had him put to death (1.Kings 2:17, 22-25).
The youthful Abishag therefore looms as a very powerful and important figure by now in the palace of Jerusalem; having been intimately connected with the great king David, she was close to his son/successor, Solomon, and the powerful queen, Bathsheba. Moreover, princes desired her. Correspondingly, Hatshepsut is considered to have passed from the harem of Thutmose I (our David) to that of Thutmose II (our Solomon). Thus Tyldesley [700]:
"On the death of her father the young Hatshepsut, possibly only twelve years old, emerged from the obscurity [sic] of the women's palace to marry her half-brother and become queen consort of Egypt."
Senenmut's (Solomon's) claim to have been already close to Hatshepsut "from her youth" now makes perfect sense in this new context. The couple, Solomon and Sheba, were both very young when joined in marriage before David's death. Despite their youth, they were both apparently made co-regent by David/Thutmose I. Hatshepsut greatly revered the founder of the Thutmosides [800]:
Throughout her reign, Hatshepsut sought to honour her earthly father, Tuthmosis I, in every possible way, while virtually ignoring the existence of her dead [sic] husband-brother, Tuthmosis II. …Tuthmosis I was Hatshepsut's reason to rule, not her motivation, as Egyptian tradition decreed that son should follow father on the throne. Given Hatshepsut's unusual circumstances, she needed to stress her links with her father more than most other kings. Therefore, in order to establish herself as her father's heir - and thereby justify her claim to the throne - Hatshepsut was forced to edit her own past [sic] so that her husband - brother, also a child of Tuthmosis I, disappeared from the scene and she became the sole Horus to her father's Osiris.
Perhaps the reason why Solomon did not take Abishag for his own was that David may have already selected her to be the wife of an older son of Bathsheba's, who would become pharaoh Thutmose II of Egypt. If so, this might go some way towards explaining the ceremony that Hatshepsut later claims to have undergone at the hands of Thutmose I. Hatshepsut claims even more; an apparent co-regency with Thutmose I himself!
We do not know much about the reign of Thutmose II, who may nonetheless have been more competent than he is given credit for. Hatshepsut does nothing to enlighten us, because - after his death - she focuses upon her revered father, Thutmose I. Also Senenmut comes into her life again at this point. As far as she was concerned, she had shared a co-regency with Thutmose I, though historians do not tend to believe her [900]:
…Hatshepsut herself chose to gloss over her periods as consort and regent [with Thutmose II], rewriting her own history so that she might invent a co-regency with Tuthmosis I, which, together with the emphasis which was now to be placed on the myth of the divine birth of kings, would 'prove', beyond doubt her absolute right to rule.
Her emphasis upon her 'divine birth' may have been Hatshepsut's way of indicating that she was, like David, a child of God, and that God had (through the agency of her father) chosen her to be ruler [910]: "Her filial relationship with Amen was always extremely important to Hatshepsut and throughout her reign she took every available opportunity to give due acknowledgement to her heavenly father …."
The typical interpretation of Hatshepsut's 'divine conception' as recorded on her Deir el-Bahri temple, may perhaps be inadequate, if not seen as symbolic. The Egyptian use of concrete imagery, e.g. the graphic image of Amen-Re having sexual intercourse with Hatshepsut's mother, may actually have been the only way that the Egyptian scribes were able to express the more abstract Israelite notion of divine election.
Having located the start of the story of her conception in heaven, Hatshepsut then proceeds to tell how Amen-Re came to Queen Ahmose in the guise of Thutmose I. Again, this may simply be the Egyptian way of telling that God had desired this conception (as for instance in the story of the conception of Samson, or Samuel).
It is interesting, in this context, that the name Abishag (its meaning somewhat disputed) is thought to mean "The Divine Father" [920].
The child, shaped by Khnum on the potter's wheel, was herself divine (we might say, heavenly) in appearance [930]: "I will shape for thee thy daughter … I will make her appearance above the gods, because of her dignity as King of Upper and Lower Egypt." Such a description of heavenly beauty was certainly apt in the case of Abishag. And it may therefore also be applicable to Hatshepsut, who boasted of her looks [940]:
Her Majesty grew beyond everything; to look upon her was more beautiful than anything; her form was like a god, she did everything as a god; Her Majesty was a maiden, beautiful, blooming, But in her time. She made her divine form to flourish, by favour of him that fashioned her.
Hatshepsut greatly revered the founder of the Thutmosides [950]:
Throughout her reign, Hatshepsut sought to honour her earthly father, Tuthmosis I, in every possible way, while virtually ignoring the existence of her dead husband-brother, Tuthmosis II.
…Tuthmosis I was Hatshepsut's reason to rule, not her motivation, as Egyptian tradition decreed that son should follow father on the throne. Given Hatshepsut's unusual circumstances, she needed to stress her links with her father more than most other kings.

Therefore, in order to establish herself as her father's heir - and thereby justify her claim to the throne - Hatshepsut was forced to edit her own past so that her husband - brother, also a child of Tuthmosis I, disappeared from the scene and she became the sole Horus to her father's Osiris. To this end she redesigned her father's tomb in the Valley of the Kings, emulated his habit of erecting obelisks, built him a new mortuary chapel associated with her own at Deir el-Bahri and allowed him prominence on many of her inscriptions.
Thutmose III shared this desire to honour the dead Thutmose I [960]:
Nor was Hatshepsut the only 18th Dynasty monarch to revere the memory of Tuthmosis I; Tuthmosis III also sought to link himself with the grandfather whom he almost certainly never met while virtually ignoring the existence of his own less impressive father. As a sign of respect Tuthmosis III, somewhat confusingly, occasionally refers to himself as the son rather than grandson of Tuthmosis I. Fortunately the autobiography of Ineni tells us that Tuthmosis II was succeeded by 'the son he had begotten', removing any doubt as to the actual paternity of Tuthmosis III. The terms 'father' and 'son' need not be taken literally in these circumstances; 'father' was often used by the ancient Egyptians as a respectful form of address for a variety of older men and could therefore be used in a reference to an adoptive father or stepfather, patron or even ancestor. That Tuthmosis I should be regarded as an heroic figure by his descendants is not too surprising. Not only had he proved himself a highly successful monarch, he was also the founder of the immediate royal family. His predecessor Amenhotep I, although officially classified as belonging to the same dynasty, was in fact no blood relation of either Hatshepsut or Tuthmosis III.
Second Conclusion
According to what has been determined here, the mighty Thutmoside dynasty was in reality a Davidic dynasty!

Illustrating the Family Ties between `The House of David' and the `Thutmoside Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty in Egypt' according to research by Damien Mackey

What to Think of the New Israeli Archaeologists ala Israel Finkelstein?
This is all very fine and nice of course, having Davidic kings of Israel ruling mighty Egypt, but what of the fact that the current crop of archaeologists in Palestine, led by that 'doyen of Israeli archaeologists', Israel Finkelstein, are currently writing ancient Israel right out of the history books? And this includes the glorious era of David and Solomon. Though these archaeologists are compelled by some authentic inscriptions that refer to the "House of David" to give king David at least a certain degree of credibility - but only as a petty king ruling a tiny kingdom, during an impoverished era - Finkelstein and his colleague, Silberman, are still bold enough to ask this question [2000]:
Did David and Solomon Exist?
followed by their response:
This question, put so boldly, may sound intentionally provocative. David and Solomon are such central religious icons to both Judaism and Christianity that the recent assertions of radical biblical critics that King David is "no more a historical figure than King Arthur", have been greeted in many religious and scholarly circles with outrage and disdain. Biblical historians such as Thomas Thompson and Niels Peter Lemche of the University of Copenhagen and Philip Davies of the University of Sheffield, dubbed "biblical minimalists" by their detractors, have argued that David and Solomon, the united monarchy of Israel, and indeed the entire biblical description of the history of Israel are no more than elaborate, skillful ideological constructs produced by priestly circles in Jerusalem in post-exile or even Hellenic times.
What these two Israeli historians have described here is a classical example of what I referred to above as a current trend to write Israel out of the history books. And Israeli 'scholars' seem to be at the forefront of this. Finkelstein and Silberman though do not outright deny the existence of king David. They return several times in their book for instance to mention the Tel Dan evidence: "... in the summer of 1993, at the biblical site of Tel Dan in northern Israel, a fragmentary artifact was discovered that would change forever the nature of the debate. It was the "House of David" inscription". And they think that there may even be another reference to David in the Moabite stone:
Furthermore, the French scholar André Lemaire has recently suggested that a similar reference to the house of David can be found on the famous inscription of Mesha, king of Moab in the ninth century BCE, which was found in the nineteenth century east of the Dead Sea.
However, the Israeli co-authors look to find models, or patterns, for David and Solomon, not in the cosmopolitan and wealthy Late Bronze I-II era (David's and Solomon's proper archaeological location according to the revision), but in the impoverished late Judaean Iron Age history.
This is a testimony to the bankruptcy of the conventional chronology, which yields a dead-end stratigraphy at every point. The effort of Finkelstein and Silberman is hardly to be acclaimed, as one admiring compatriot does, as: "The boldest and most exhilarating synthesis of the Bible and archaeology for fifty years".
As Queen of Egypt and Her Visit to Jerusalem
Though I am only guessing here, I propose that, as Solomon's huge workforce - under the guidance of king Hiram of Tyre - got to work (corvée) to build the wonders of Solomonic Jerusalem that the mis-directed spades of the current crop of Israeli archaeologists are completely missing out on, Solomon sent his young bride to dwell at Thebes in Egypt. According to Metzler [2090]:
"While under construction by a work-force of 183,300 (1.Kings 5:27-30), Jerusalem was no place for a princess to live."
Solomon may even have lived there in Egypt with her for some of the time.
Though Solomon's youth was passed in the military, as befitted a son of David, and he was, like his father, a keen hunter (the young sons of Thutmose I hunted wild animals in the Giza desert near the Great Sphinx, a favourite playground of the royal princes), he (as Senenmut) was depicted by the Egyptian artists with fine, sensitive hands and plump cheeks. Solomon, a profound thinker, probably preferred to let others get involved in building work; though he would have maintained a keen interest in it all. His title as "chief architect" in Egypt, as Senenmut, is probably due to the fact that it was he who actually employed the Phoenician artisans (cf. Auguste Mariette, who noted a Phoenician influence also in Hatshepsut's architecture) who would design Hatshepsut's own temple and chapels.
Hatshepsut ruled Egypt as the step-mother and guardian of young Tuthmosis III, Solomon's son by the concubine, Isis. For this period, she was known as "Queen", not "Pharaoh."
Solomon would have remained in Jerusalem at least as the work neared its completion; back there to receive his Egyptian wife when she returned to see, with her own eyes, what so far she had only heard about from messengers. The Bible presents Queen Sheba's visit to Jerusalem, and her encounter with Solomon, as if it were her first time. But it wasn't. The city of Jerusalem however was now nothing like she had remembered it. She drank it all in with amazement and determined that she must have the same for Egypt. And Solomon was never one to refuse her.
The young Thutmose III who accompanied Queen Hatshepsut to Jerusalem also took it all in. Five years after Solomon's death, he would return there with a conquering army, and sack the golden Temple and Solomon's palace. He is the biblical pharaoh Shishak, the name taken from Thutmose III's Horus name, Tcheser-kau ['Chase a Cow']. Ironically, today, most of the wealth and glory of Solomon's Jerusalem is to be found in Egypt, depicted on the walls and tombs of Thutmose III and his generals.
While the Bible may not give the impression that the Queen tarried long in Jerusalem, but simply came, saw and conquered (and was conquered by Solomon in his might and wisdom), and then returned home, Metzler thinks that she may have stayed there for about a decade.
But the Jews at the time apparently did not want the Egyptian queen, Hatshepsut/Sheba, living in the same royal palace with Solomon in the environs of the sacred Ark of the Covenant (2 Chronicles 8:11).
So Solomon moved her to a new location.
Rohl describes what he believes to be the compound that king Solomon had built for her, "beside the road to Shechem (now called the Nablus road) to the north of the City of David and Mount Moriah" [2100]:
The surviving vestiges of the Egyptian compound, with its royal residence and tombs, has been unearthed in the area of St. Etienne [Stephen's] monastery, the Anglican 'Garden Tomb' and the German convent school, just to the north of the Damascus Gate. Numerous artefacts have been found including a serpentine statuette, alabaster vases (late 18th Dynasty), a limestone funerary stela (depicting the deceased offering flowers to the god Seth), a hotep-style offering table; at least two palmiform column capitals, a scarab (bearing the motif of a khepri-beetle raising the sun-disc within crescent moon), faience rosettes (probably used to adorn a funeral canopy), and a faience ushabti figurine. All this points to the burial of an Egyptian of high status in the area - and just such a tomb has been identified by Professor Gabriel Barkay of Tel Aviv University. The rock-cut rooms are all scaled to the Egyptian royal cubit and the main, inner-most burial chamber contains three rock-cut sarcophagi (as opposed to the table-type burial installations generally found elsewhere in Jerusalem).[2110]
Though Hatshepsut's pharaonic husband, Thutmose II, is a somewhat obscure character, we can greatly supplement him with his alter ego, the very well known Senenmut. Hatshepsut's honouring of Senenmut gives the lie to the view that she has virtually nothing to say about her husband, focusing rather upon her revered father, Thutmose I. As far as she was concerned, she had shared a co-regency with Thutmose I, though historians do not tend to believe her - perhaps at their peril.
Her Separation from Solomon
Metzler has suggested that the biblical phrase "she [Sheba] turned" (to go back home) indicates 'divorce' (Latin divortium, from divertere, "to turn away") [2120]. What I suggest may have happened was that Solomon had kept Hatshepsut/Sheba there in Jerusalem along with Thutmose III for however long it took for the latter to be of an age to marry her, and that he then sent the couple back to Egypt to rule there. If I am correct, then Hatshepsut would therefore be the obscure Hatshepsut II so-called, who was to become the mother of Amenhotep II, eventual successor to the long-reigning Thutmose III.
Thus Sheba/Hatshepsut passed from the harem of Thutmose I, to that of Thutmose II, to that of Thutmose III.
Hatshepsut as Pharaoh
Hatshepsut, surprisingly to all, became Pharaoh. The famous expedition to Punt that she would later organize as Pharaoh was primarily to acquire myrrh trees from Lebanon - [one of the favourite places of Solomon and the Shunammite, as young lovers, appears to have been the myrrh-terraces or "mountains of myrrh" of Lebanon (e.g. Song of Songs 4:6)] - in order to provide fragrant incense for her shining new temple ('Splendour of Splendours') at Deir el-Bahri. This magnificent female, descendant of king David, had risen from obscurity in northern Israel, even though a royal princess, to become the close companion of successive kings of Israel (and wife of one) who also ruled Egypt.
Hatshepsut's dramatic rise to power was complete when she claimed the title of Pharaoh of Egypt.
The Death of Solomon
According to my reconstruction, Solomon/Thutmose II would have died about Year 18 of the reign of Hatshepsut/Sheba and Thutmose III. But according to Egyptology (and this is why I was formerly loathe to accept Metzler's view that Solomon was Thutmose II), Thutmose II died a sickly person in his early 30's, after a sole reign of from 10-14 years. Tyldesley though has cautiously noted [2130]:
…nothing in Egyptology can ever be taken for granted, and it is by no means one hundred per cent certain that the body of a man in his early thirties found associated with the wooden coffin of Tuthmosis II is actually that of the young [sic] king. The body and coffin were discovered not lying in their original tomb but as part of a collection of New Kingdom royal mummies which is now known as the Deir el-Bahri cache.
The Death of Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut's mummy has never been found in Egypt. Was Hatshepsut actually buried there, or was she buried in that compound described above, north of Jerusalem, that Rohl thinks is the one king Solomon had set up for her in Israel?



The Last Years of King David

The overthrow of Absalom did not at once bring peace to the kingdom. So large a part of the nation had joined in revolt that David would not return to his capital and resume his authority without an invitation from the tribes. In the confusion that followed Absalom's defeat there was no prompt and decided action to recall the king, and when at last Judah undertook to bring back David, the jealousy of the other tribes was roused, and a counter-revolution followed. This, however, was speedily quelled, and peace returned to Israel.
The history of David affords one of the most impressive testimonies ever given to the dangers that threaten the soul from power and riches and worldly honor--those things that are most eagerly desired among men. Few have ever passed through an experience better adapted to prepare them for enduring such a test. David's early life as a shepherd, with its lessons of humility, of patient toil, and of tender care for his flocks; the communion with nature in the solitude of the hills, developing his genius for music and poetry, and directing his thoughts to the Creator; the long discipline of his wilderness life, calling into exercise courage, fortitude, patience, and faith in God, had been appointed by the Lord as a preparation for the throne of Israel. David had enjoyed precious experiences of the love of God, and had been richly endowed with His Spirit; in the history of Saul he had seen the utter worthlessness of mere human wisdom. And yet worldly success and honor so weakened the character of David that he was repeatedly overcome by the tempter.
Intercourse with heathen peoples led to a desire to follow their national customs and kindled ambition for worldly greatness. As the people of Jehovah, Israel was to be honored; but as pride and self-confidence increased, the Israelites were not content with this pre-eminence. They cared rather for their standing among other nations. This spirit could not fail to invite temptation. With a view to extending his conquests among foreign nations, David determined to increase his army by requiring military service from all who were of proper age. To effect this, it became necessary to take a census of the population. It was pride and ambition that prompted this action of the king. The numbering of the people would show the contrast between the weakness of the kingdom when David ascended the throne and its strength and prosperity under his rule. This would tend still further to foster the already too great self-confidence of both king and people. The Scripture says, "Satan stood up against Israel, and provoked David to number Israel." The prosperity of Israel under David had been due to the blessing of God rather than to the ability of her king or the strength of her armies. But the increasing of the military resources of the kingdom would give the impression to surrounding nations that Israel's trust was in her armies, and not in the power of Jehovah.
Though the people of Israel were proud of their national greatness, they did not look with favor upon David's plan for so greatly extending the military service. The proposed enrollment caused much dissatisfaction; consequently it was thought necessary to employ the military officers in place of the priests and magistrates, who had formerly taken the census. The object of the undertaking was directly contrary to the principles of a theocracy. Even Joab remonstrated, unscrupulous as he had heretofore shown himself. He said, "The Lord make His people a hundred times so many more as they be: but, my lord the king, are they not all my lord's servants? why then doth my lord require this thing? why will he be a cause of trespass to Israel? Nevertheless the king's word prevailed against Joab. Wherefore Joab departed, and went throughout all Israel, and came to Jerusalem." The numbering was not finished when David was convicted of his sin. Self-condemned, he "said unto God, I have sinned greatly, because I have done this thing: but now, I beseech Thee, do away the iniquity of Thy servant; for I have done very foolishly." The next morning a message was brought to David by the prophet Gad: "Thus saith the Lord, Choose thee either three years' famine; or three months to be destroyed before thy foes, while that the sword of thine enemies overtaketh thee; or else three days the sword of the Lord, even the pestilence, in the land, and the angel of the Lord destroying throughout all the coasts of Israel. Now therefore," said the prophet, "advise thyself what word I shall bring again to Him that sent me."
The king's answer was, "I am in a great strait: let us fall now into the hand of the Lord; for His mercies are great: and let me not fall into the hand of man."
The land was smitten with pestilence, which destroyed seventy thousand in Israel. The scourge had not yet entered the capital, when "David lifted up his eyes, and saw the angel of the Lord stand between the earth and the heaven, having a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem. Then David and the elders of Israel, who were clothed in sackcloth, fell upon their faces." The king pleaded with God in behalf of Israel: "Is it not I that commanded the people to be numbered? even I it is that have sinned and done evil indeed; but as for these sheep, what have they done? let Thine hand, I pray Thee, O Lord my God, be on me, and on my father's house; but not on Thy people, that they should be plagued."
The taking of the census had caused disaffection among the people; yet they had themselves cherished the same sins that prompted David's action. As the Lord through Absalom's sin visited judgment upon David, so through David's error He punished the sins of Israel.
The destroying angel had stayed his course outside Jerusalem. He stood upon Mount Moriah,"in the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite." Directed by the prophet, David went to the mountain, and there built an altar to the Lord, "and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings, and called upon the Lord; and He answered him from heaven by fire upon the altar of burnt offering." "So the Lord was entreated for the land, and the plague was stayed from Israel."
The spot upon which the altar was erected, henceforth ever to be regarded as holy ground, was tendered to the king by Ornan as a gift. But the king declined thus to receive it. "I will verily buy it for the full price," he said; "for I will not take that which is thine for the Lord, nor offer burnt offerings without cost. So David gave to Ornan for the place six hundred shekels of gold by weight." This spot, memorable as the place where Abraham had built the altar to offer up his son, and now hallowed by this great deliverance, was afterward chosen as the site of the temple erected by Solomon.
Still another shadow was to gather over the last years of David. He had reached the age of threescore and ten. The hardships and exposures of his early wanderings, his many wars, the cares and afflictions of his later years, had sapped the fountain of life. Though his mind retained its clearness and strength, feebleness and age, with their desire for seclusion, prevented a quick apprehension of what was passing in the kingdom, and again rebellion sprang up in the very shadow of the throne. Again the fruit of David's parental indulgence was manifest. The one who now aspired to the throne was Adonijah, "a very goodly man" in person and bearing, but unprincipled and reckless. In his youth he had been subjected to but little restraint; for "his father had not displeased him at any time in saying, Why hast thou done so?" He now rebelled against the authority of God, who had appointed Solomon to the throne. Both by natural endowments and religious character Solomon was better qualified than his elder brother to become ruler of Israel; yet although the choice of God had been clearly indicated, Adonijah did not fail to find sympathizers. Joab, though guilty of many crimes, had heretofore been loyal to the throne; but he now joined the conspiracy against Solomon, as did also Abiathar the priest.
The rebellion was ripe; the conspirators had assembled at a great feast just without the city to proclaim Adonijah king, when their plans were thwarted by the prompt action of a few faithful persons, chief among whom were Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet, and Bathsheba the mother of Solomon. They represented the state of affairs to the king, reminding him of the divine direction that Solomon should succeed to the throne. David at once abdicated in favor of Solomon, who was immediately anointed and proclaimed king. The conspiracy was crushed. Its chief actors had incurred the penalty of death. Abiathar's life was spared, out of respect to his office and his former fidelity to David; but he was degraded from the office of high priest, which passed to the line of Zadok. Joab and Adonijah were spared for the time, but after the death of David they suffered the penalty of their crime. The execution of the sentence upon the son of David completed the fourfold judgment that testified to God's abhorrence of the father's sin.
From the very opening of David's reign one of his most cherished plans had been that of erecting a temple to the Lord. Though he had not been permitted to execute this design, he had manifested no less zeal and earnestness in its behalf. He had provided an abundance of the most costly material--gold, silver, onyx stones, and stones of divers colors; marble, and the most precious woods. And now these valuable treasures that he had collected must be committed to others; for other hands must build the house for the ark, the symbol of God's presence.
Seeing that his end was near, the king summoned the princes of Israel, with representative men from all parts of the kingdom, to receive this legacy in trust. He desired to commit to them his dying charge and secure their concurrence and support in the great work to be accomplished. Because of his physical weakness, it had not been expected that he would attend to this transfer in person; but the inspiration of God came upon him, and with more than his wonted fervor and power, he was able, for the last time, to address his people. He told them of his own desire to build the temple, and of the Lord's command that the work should be committed to Solomon his son. The divine assurance was, "Solomon thy son, he shall build My house and My courts; for I have chosen him to be My son, and I will be his Father. Moreover I will establish his kingdom forever, if he be constant to do My commandments and My judgments, as at this day." "Now therefore," David said, "in the sight of all Israel the congregation of the Lord, and in the audience of our God, keep and seek for all the commandments of the Lord your God: that ye may possess this good land, and leave it for an inheritance for your children after you forever."
David had learned by his own experience how hard is the path of him who departs from God. He had felt the condemnation of the broken law, and had reaped the fruits of transgression; and his whole soul was moved with solicitude that the leaders of Israel should be true to God, and that Solomon should obey God's law, shunning the sins that had weakened his father's authority, embittered his life, and dishonored God. David knew that it would require humility of heart, a constant trust in God, and unceasing watchfulness to withstand the temptations that would surely beset Solomon in his exalted station; for such prominent characters are a special mark for the shafts of Satan. Turning to his son, already acknowledged as his successor on the throne, David said: "And thou, Solomon my son, know thou the God of thy father, and serve Him with a perfect heart and with a willing mind: for the Lord searcheth all hearts, and understandeth all the imaginations of the thoughts: if thou seek Him, He will be found of thee; but if thou forsake Him, He will cast thee off forever. Take heed now; for the Lord hath chosen thee to build a house for the sanctuary: be strong, and do it."
David gave Solomon minute directions for building the temple, with patterns of every part, and of all its instruments of service, as had been revealed to him by divine inspiration. Solomon was still young, and shrank from the weighty responsibilities that would devolve upon him in the erection of the temple and in the government of God's people. David said to his son, "Be strong and of good courage, and do it: fear not, nor be dismayed, for the Lord God, even my God, will be with thee; He will not fail thee, nor forsake thee."
Again David appealed to the congregation: "Solomon my son, whom alone God hath chosen, is yet young and tender, and the work is great: for the palace is not for man, but for the Lord God." He said, "I have prepared with all my might for the house of my God," and he went on to enumerate the materials he had gathered. More than this, he said, "I have set my affection to the house of my God, I have of mine own proper good, of gold and silver, which I have given to the house of my God, over and above all that I have prepared for the holy house, even three thousand talents of gold, of the gold of Ophir, and seven thousand talents of refined silver, to overlay the walls of the houses withal." "Who then," he asked of the assembled multitude that had brought their liberal gifts - "who then is willing to consecrate his service this day unto the Lord?"
There was a ready response from the assembly. "The chief of the fathers and princes of the tribes of Israel, and the captains of thousands and of hundreds, with the rulers of the king's work, offered willingly, and gave, for the service of the house of God, of gold five thousand talents and ten thousand drams, and of silver ten thousand talents, and of brass eighteen thousand talents, and one hundred thousand talents of iron. And they with whom precious stones were found gave them to the treasure of the house of the Lord. . . . Then the people rejoiced, for that they offered willingly, because with perfect heart they offered willingly to the Lord: and David the king also rejoiced with great joy.
"Wherefore David blessed the Lord before all the congregation: and David said, Blessed be Thou, Lord God of Israel our father, forever and ever. Thine, O Lord, is the greatness, and the power, and the glory, and the victory, and the majesty: for all that is in the heaven and in the earth is Thine; Thine is the kingdom, O Lord, and Thou art exalted as head above all. Both riches and honor come of Thee, and Thou reignest over all; and in Thine hand is power and might; and in Thine hand it is to make great, and to give strength unto all. Now therefore, our God, we thank Thee, and praise Thy glorious name. But who am I, and what is my people, that we should be able to offer so willingly after this sort? for all things come of Thee, and of Thine own have we given Thee. For we are strangers before Thee, and sojourners, as were all our fathers: our days on the earth are as a shadow, and there is none abiding. O Lord our God, all this store that we have prepared to build Thee an house for Thine holy name cometh of Thine hand, and is all Thine own. I know also, my God, that Thou triest the heart, and hast pleasure in uprightness.
"As for me, in the uprightness of mine heart I have willingly offered all these things: and now have I seen with joy Thy people, which are present here, to offer willingly unto Thee. O Lord God of Abraham, Isaac and of Israel, our fathers, keep this forever in the imagination of the thoughts of the heart of Thy people, and prepare their heart unto Thee: and give unto Solomon my son a perfect heart, to keep Thy commandments, Thy testimonies, and Thy statutes, and to do all these things, and to build the palace, for the which I have made provision. And David said to all the congregation, Now bless the Lord your God. And all the congregation blessed the Lord God of their fathers, and bowed down their heads, and worshiped the Lord."
With deepest interest the king had gathered the rich material for building and beautifying the temple. He had composed the glorious anthems that in afteryears should echo through its courts. Now his heart was made glad in God, as the chief of the fathers and the princes of Israel so nobly responded to his appeal, and offered themselves to the important work before them. And as they gave their service, they were disposed to do more. They swelled the offerings, giving of their own possessions into the treasury. David had felt deeply his own unworthiness in gathering the material for the house of God, and the expression of loyalty in the ready response of the nobles of his kingdom, as with willing hearts they dedicated their treasures to Jehovah and devoted themselves to His service, filled him with joy. But it was God alone who had imparted this disposition to His people. He, not man, must be glorified. It was He who had provided the people with the riches of earth, and His Spirit had made them willing to bring their precious things for the temple. It was all of the Lord; if His love had not moved upon the hearts of the people, the king's efforts would have been vain, and the temple would never have been erected.
All that man receives of God's bounty still belongs to God. Whatever God has bestowed in the valuable and beautiful things of earth is placed in the hands of men to test them--to sound the depths of their love for Him and their appreciation of His favors. Whether it be the treasures of wealth or of intellect, they are to be laid, a willing offering, at the feet of Jesus; the giver saying, meanwhile, with David, "All things come of Thee, and of Thine own have we given Thee."
When he felt that death was approaching, the burden of David's heart was still for Solomon and for the kingdom of Israel, whose prosperity must so largely depend upon the fidelity of her king. "And he charged Solomon his son, saying, I go the way of all the earth: be thou strong therefore, and show thyself a man; and keep the charge of the Lord thy God, to walk in His ways, to keep His statutes, and His commandments, and His judgments, and His testimonies, . . . that thou mayest prosper in all that thou doest, and whithersoever thou turnest thyself: that the Lord may continue His word which He spake concerning me, saying, If thy children take heed to their way, to walk before Me in truth with all their heart and with all their soul, there shall not fail thee (said He) a man on the throne of Israel." 1 Kings 2:1-4.
David's "last words," as recorded, are a song--a song of trust, of loftiest principle, and undying faith:
"David the son of Jesse saith,
And the man who was raised on high saith,
The anointed of the God of Jacob,
And the sweet psalmist of Israel:
The Spirit of Jehovah spake by me: . . .
One that ruleth over men righteously,
That ruleth in the fear of God,
He shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth,
A morning without clouds;
When the tender grass springeth out of the earth,
Through clear shining after rain.
Verily my house is not so with God;
Yet He hath made me an everlasting covenant,
Ordered in all things, and sure:
For it is all my salvation, and all my desire."
2 Samuel 23:1-5, R.V.
Great had been David's fall, but deep was his repentance, ardent was his love, and strong his faith. He had been forgiven much, and therefore he loved much. Luke 7:47.
The psalms of David pass through the whole range of experience, from the depths of conscious guilt and self-condemnation to the loftiest faith and the most exalted communing with God. His life record declares that sin can bring only shame and woe, but that God's love and mercy can reach to the deepest depths, that faith will lift up the repenting soul to share the adoption of the sons of God. Of all the assurances which His word contains, it is one of the strongest testimonies to the faithfulness, the justice, and the covenant mercy of God.
Man "fleeth also as a shadow, and continueth not," "but the word of our God shall stand forever." "The mercy of Jehovah is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear Him, and His righteousness unto children's children; to such as keep His covenant, and to those that remember His commandments to do them." Job 14:2; Isaiah 40:8; Psalm 103:17, 18.
"Whatsoever God doeth, it shall be forever." Ecclesiastes 3:14.
Glorious are the promises made to David and his house, promises that look forward to the eternal ages, and find their complete fulfillment in Christ. The Lord declared:
"I have sworn unto David My servant . . . with whom My hand shall be established: Mine arm also shall strengthen him. . . . My faithfulness and My mercy shall be with him: and in My name shall his horn be exalted. I will set his hand also in the sea, and his right hand in the rivers. He shall cry unto Me, Thou art my Father, my God, and the Rock of my salvation. Also I will make him My first-born, higher than the kings of the earth. My mercy will I keep for him forevermore, and My covenant shall stand fast with him." Psalm 89:3-28.

"His seed also will I make to endure forever,
And his throne as the days of heaven." Psalm 89:29. "He shall judge the poor of the people,
He shall save the children of the needy,
And shall break in pieces the oppressor.
They shall fear thee while the sun endureth,
And so long as the moon, throughout all generations. . . .
In his days shall the righteous flourish;
And abundance of peace, till the moon be no more.
He shall have dominion also from sea to sea,
And from the river unto the ends of the earth."
"His name shall endure forever:
His name shall be continued as long as the sun:
And men shall be blessed in him:
All nations shall call him blessed."
Psalm 72:4-8, R.V., 17.

"For unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given: and the government shall be upon His shoulder: and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace." "He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest; and the Lord God shall give unto Him the throne of His father David: and He shall reign over the house of Jacob forever; and of His kingdom there shall be no end." Isaiah 9:6; Luke 1:32, 33.
[EG White, Patriarchs and Prophets, Chapter 73. Ch. 7, 11, 51, 59,]


Notes and references [5] See BAR, Jeffrey R. Chedwick, Discovering Hebron, Sept. 2005, Vol. 31, No. 5, p. 25-33, 70,71. Images show the monastery, what is described as the MB II gate and tower, and underneath the EB III wall. Objects found in burials included a wide blade dagger with a limestone pommel, a jugglet, a red clay carinated (angled) bowl. From a 1966 dig is shown a scarab of Ramses II with his prenomen, his 4th name, User Ma'at Ra Setep N Ra, also LB age paint decorated sherds, a picture of the 1960 excavator Philip Hammond examining IA four room house, and a Hebrew stamp on an 8th cent. storage jar from the time of King Hezekiah. The name `Hebron' occurs 68 times in the Bible from Genesis 13:18 to 2.Chronicles 11:10. That seems to indicate that its former significance diminished with time in the eyes of the authors of the Bible.
[0010] Those interested could read, for instance, G. Roux's Iraq (Penguin Books, 1992), chapters 12, 13.
[0020] CAH , Vol. II, pt.1 (3rd ed.), 20.
[0030] Ages in Chaos I , London (Sidgwick & Jackson Ltd., 1953), 80, 157-158.
[32] The Weak Strongman Joab: The life of Joab shows a man involved in power politics, intrigue, misguided loyalties, double-dealing, jealousy and stubborness. In his days survival is not guaranteed by a strong central administration and a comprehensive retirement plan. It is, during his time as David's strongman, that Israel becomes a nation. After the clan feuds and tribal rivalry that characterized the period of the judges, it is the figure of the king (Saul, David, Solomon) that unites Israel, even though the mentality of clan thinking will last on for several more decades. Even though Joab, linked to David's family (1.Chr. 2:13-17), had the responsibility of being in charge of David's troops, his character comes first out in 2.Sam. 2, he ends up murdering Abner, the general of King Saul. To avoid future reprisals Joab ingratiates himself as closely as possible with David to make himself indispensable. His primary goal seems to be to do what is best for himself rather than doing the right thing, thus he violates his conscience. Once a person violates his conscience, the good voice inside becomes duller and duller and such a one is eventually unable to stand up for what is right. Joab understood about God's great love toward the sinner (2.Sam. 14, woman of Tekoah incident). [**] His theology was correct but it remained head knowledge only. His later life shows Joab to be revengeful, unforgiving and immune to God's love. Religion, for him, seems to be something to apply toward political ends, to promote self. Having taken God in heaven out of the equation of what goes on on earth, Joab thinks he can always live as he pleases and escape the consequences. He forgets that God cannot be fooled, 1.Kings 2:28-35. Even though retribution may no come immediately, it will come one day - if not in this life, then in the final judgment. However, often at the end of the day in this life, "a man reaps what he sows." Galatians 6:7, NIV. -- However scheming, ambitious, and deceitful Joab was, everything he did could have been forgiven by the Lord had Joab come to God in faith, humility, and repentance. That we ourselves should never forget.
** God's Great Love: Nature and revelation alike testify of God's love. The God in heaven is the source of life, of wisdom, and of joy. Look at the wonderful and beautiful things of nature. Think of their marvelous adaptation to the needs and happiness, not only of man, but of all living creatures. The sunshine and the rain, that gladden and refresh the earth, the hills and seas and plains, all speak to us of the Creator's love. It is God who supplies the daily needs of all His creatures. In the beautiful words expressed by David, "The eyes of all wait upon Thee; And Thou givest them their meat in due season. Thou openest Thine hand, And satisfiest the desire of every living thing." Psalm 145:15,16. - Originally God made man perfectly holy and happy; and the fair earth, as it came from the Creator's hand, bore no blight of decay or shadow of the curse. It is transgression of God's law--the law of love--that has brought woe and death. Yet even amid the suffering that results from sin, God's love is revealed. It is written that God cursed the ground for man's sake. Genesis 3:17. The thorn and the thistle--the difficulties and trials that make his life one of toil and care--were appointed for his good as a part of the training needful in God's plan for his uplifting from the ruin and degradation that sin has wrought. The world, though fallen, is not all sorrow and misery. In nature itself are messages of hope and comfort. There are flowers upon the thistles, and the thorns are covered with roses. - - "God is love" is written upon every opening bud, upon every spire of springing grass. The lovely birds making the air vocal with their happy songs, the delicately tinted flowers in their perfection perfuming the air, the lofty trees of the forest with their rich foliage of living green -- all testify to the tender, fatherly care of our God and to His desire to make His children happy. The word of God reveals His character. He Himself has declared His infinite love and pity. When Moses prayed, "Show me Thy glory," the Lord answered, "I will make all My goodness pass before thee." Exodus 33:18, 19. This is His glory. The Lord passed before Moses, and proclaimed, "The Lord, The Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin." Exodus 34:6, 7. He is "slow to anger, and of great kindness," "because He delighteth in mercy." Jonah 4:2; Micah 7:18. -- It was Satan who led men to conceive of God as a being whose chief attribute is stern justice,--one who is a severe judge, a harsh, exacting creditor. He pictured the Creator as a being who is watching with jealous eye to discern the errors and mistakes of men, that He may visit judgments upon them. It was to remove this dark shadow, by revealing to the world the infinite love of God, that Jesus came to live among men.
[0040] Baikie, J., A History of Egypt (A & C Black, Ltd. London, 1929), p. 63. See also the `Temple Scroll', column 56 through 59 which presents the rights and duties of the king od Israel. In column 56 which follows closely Deut. 17:14-16, we read: "He must not multiply horses for himself, or cause the people to return to Egypt, for war ... since I have said to you, you shall never return this way again." Other `Statutes of the King' described are the king's duties to organize an army and appoint officers, laws concerning conscription and taking booty during war, the king's marriage, the judicial council and the king's obligation to heed it, and more. Compare 1.Sam. 10:25.
[0050] Breasted, Records, Vol. II, Sec. 236, p. 96. While the translation used by Breasted mentions Thutmose I's `companions', this may not be far off of a Hebrew parallel where the King's `friend' is mentioned.
[0060] Ibid., Sec. 237.
[0070] Ibid., Sec. 236 (last part) & Sec. 238.
[0080] Baikie, J., A History of Egypt (A & C Black, Ltd. London, 1929), continued.
[0090] Ibid., Baikie.
[0095] Not only was poetry of Israel read in Egypt and vice versa, the very genre of epic poems praising the deeds of God or traditional heroes in a dignified manner seems to have been first used by Israelite poets like David and Solomon, long before Greek alter egos of Hebrew personalities borrowed their patterns, even content and heroes. [Examples: Exodus 15:19-21 Song of Miriam; Psalm 114;136;137; Isaiah 26; Habakuk 3.]
[0100] The Jerome Biblical Commentary, New Jersey (Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968), 9:54.
[0110] Joyce Tyldesley,`Hatchepsut the Female Pharaoh (JTH)', (Penguin Books, 1998), 106-107. For a detail image of the `Royal Barge' see KMT, Summer 1996, Vol. 7, p. 49; for the complete image see Ancient Egypt, Feb/Mar 2005, p. 29. For images of the `Red Chapel' see KMT, Summer, 1999, Vol. 10, p. 32f; KMT, Spring 2003, Vol. 14, p. 24; and KMT, Spring 2004, Vol. 15, p/ 19-33.
For drawings of the two types of solar barques of Ramses IX. see N. Reeves, The Complete Valley of the Kings, London, 1997, p. 47. On p. 100 the author mentions three large funerary barques in the tomb (KV 35) of Amenophis II with the body of a mummy in one of the boats, p. 198. None of these `barques' are alike.
[0115] a) The `barque'of Queen Hatshepsut topped by the shrine of Amun and carried by 9 men can be seen in Andrew Hamilton, The Opet Festival in Ancient Egypt, Feb/Mar 2005, p. 29. b) See also Peter F. Dorman, `The Monuments of Senenmut', New York, 1988, `The Date of Hatshepsut's Priscription', p. 46-65. c) The `barque' of Tutankhamen is shown and discussed in Andy Joose, Tutankhamen's Perplexing Calcite Barque in KMT, Spring, 2005, p. 35-39. The author references a number of Egyptologists comments about the barque none of which offer a logical explanation but then discusses the not matching border decoration.
[0120] But Metzler may well be right that David was the "pharaoh" just referred to, because I have since read that some noted biblical historians (Martin Noth, Hist. 216; Albright, ARI 136, n. 29; AASOR 12, 74-75) have concluded that David must have in fact sacked the city of Gezer.
[0123] Archaeologists argue that Gezer was destroyed by Shishak (ca. 918). See William G. Dever, The Date of the `Outer Wall' at Gezer in BASOR, Feb. 1993, p. 33-(35)-54. At CIAS we hold that King David (ca. 1012-972 BC) destroyed Gezer.
[0130] Abraham Malamat, `Das davidische und salomonische Königreich und seine Beziehungen zu Ägypten und Syrien', Zur Entstehung eines Großreichs, (Wien 1983) pp. 22 and 24. See also BA, Vol. XXI, Dec. 1958, p. 96-104.
However, The Jerome Biblical Commentary 10:23 (1968, Commentary on 1.Kings by P. Ellis) provides the following most interesting piece of information, authoritatively supported by conventional historians, that is very much compatible with the reconstruction aimed at by Metzler (though conventionally presuming the "pharaoh" in question to have been the 21st dynasty's "Psousennes [Psusennes] II"):
"Gezer is west of Jerusalem on the hills above the maritime plain, well situated as a western defence for Israel. It is difficult to see (v. 16) how Pharaoh, probably Psousennes II, would have had to conquer it, because presumably David had done so before him (cf. Noth, Hist. 216; Albright, ARI, 136, n. 29; AASOR 12, 74-75)."
[0140] JTH, Ibid., 62. See also Peter Clayton, `Chronicles of the Pharaohs', London, 1994, p. 101-102.
[0150] Ibid., 73.
[0160] Dorman, P., The Monuments of Senenmut (Kegan Paul International, London, 1988), p. 69.
[0170] JTH, p. 75-76.
[0180] Ibid., 62.
[0190] Ibid., 63. Emphasis added.
[0200] Ages in Chaos, chapter 2 "The Hyksos". Velikovsky was wrong though in his suggesting (p. 73) that the "One" referred to in the Ahmose inscription for the siege of Avaris referred to someone other than the pharaoh, hence Saul. This use of "one" for pharaoh was standard Egyptian practice.
[0210] The Language of the Pentateuch in its Relation to Egyptian (Oxford University Press, 1933), 107.; According to Genesis 25:16-18: "These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, by their towns, and by their castles; twelve princes according to their nations. ... And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria." Accordingly, Sur was located east of Egypt in the direction of Assyria, which would equate Havilah with today's region of Jordan and Saudi-Arabia, possibly including the area of where the Euphrates enters the Persian Golf near Basra and thus include a part of Mesopotamia. If we allow that the water way of the Pisan of Genesis 2:11*) refers to the Arabian peninsula as it is surrounded by the waters of the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, this passage and the conquests of Saul take on a different meaning. Saul did not conquer Arabia but just some Arab tribes (Ammonites in Gilead, 1.Sam. 11:1; and others 14:47 ) bordering his territory. Saul's conquests, then, did not reach deep into Egypt but to its borders - but this all changed under King David. Saudi Arabia had one of the richest gold mines.
*) In contrast to Damien, I believe that the rivers flowing out of Eden point to the post-Flood: 1) Pisan, the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean surrounding Saudi Arabia, 2) the Gihon, the Indian and Atlantic Ocean surrounding Africa, 3) and the Mediterranean Sea, before Hiddekel, Assyria/Syria, and 4) the Euphrates River. While today we know oceans are not rivers, the ancients may have not made such a strict distinction not having maps of knowing the layout of their world exactly. Basically the geography/topography of the pre-Flood world was rendered unrecognizable by the world wide disaster.
[0211] Malami, `The Kingdom of David & Solomon in its Contact with Egypt and Aram Naharaim', The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. XXI, 4, 1958, p. 96-104. While the author's conventional chronology cannot explain true history, he brings in otherwise data from this time period and the affairs and relations to Syria, etc. Most of all we wanted to document the source.
[0220] Montet, P., Eternal Egypt (Phoenix Press, London, 1988), 42.
[0230] Grimal N., A History of Ancient (Blackwell, 1994), 207.
There was also a secondary spouse of Thutmose I by the name of Mutnofret, the mother of Thutmose II. [KMT, Vol. 11, No. 2, p. 64]
About Amenhotep I Dr. Birch wrote the following: "It is rare to find on sepulchral objects other indications then those relating to the dead ... occasionally (they) have written on them the name and age of the deceased, and the name of the monarch under whom they were embalmed ... . They often have in their legends or decorations the name of Amenhotep I, of the 18th dynasty, who seems to have enjoyed posthumous honours, for unknown reasons, for a later period then the 18th dynasty."
See also information on the tomb of Ken. In a niche in the middle of the back side the prenomen of Amenophis I (Amenhotep I) of the 18th dynasty was found. Other names which occur include: 1. Hathor, the queen of Amenthi, 2. the divine wife of Amon `Ahmes-nefertari', 3. the sister of the king `Amen-meri-t', 4. royal offerings to `Ra-Harmakhis-Tum'. [Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, Nov 1884- June 1885, Vol. VII]
The Queen of Amenhotep I was Merytamen whose colossal rishi-style wooden outer coffin was found in her rock cut tomb at Deir el Bahari. A photo of this coffin and a detailed map and article on her tomb (An-B) can be seen in KMT, Winter 2003/04, p. 65.
[0240] JTH, Op. cit., 65.
[0250] Ibid.
[0260] Op. cit., 44.
[0270] Op. cit., 70. Argo Island is probably located offshore from Argin. See Map.
[0278] It appear that Isaiah 11:11 retraces the approximate area of influence King David had covering the areas from (east) Assyria to (south) Pathros and Cush, Upper Egypt to Elam (unknown), Shinar (the plains of Babylon) to Hamath (Orontos River) to the islands in the sea.
[0280] Op. cit., 114.
[0290] Ineni was the chief architect during the time of Amenhotep I of the 18th Dynasty. In his titled capacity as `Chief of all Works at Karnak', he was also active in tomb constructions.
[0300] In e-mails dated 11/03/02 and 12/03/02.
[0310] An elephant is carved on the Assyrian period `Black Obelisk/Kurkh Stele' where it is presented as a gift from the king of `Musri', either Egypt or a place in Syria. BAR, Sep/Oct 1985, p. 47; See also BAR, Nov. 2002, p. 49.
[0320] JTH, p. 70.
[0330] JTH, p. 25-26.
[0340] By measuring 2 cords for a death sentence, presumably for hanging, and 1 cord for staying alive, presumably long enough to tie someone's hands for a period of imprisonment.
[0450] Alan Gardiner states that Ahmose married the daughter of his older brother Khamose who was therefore his niece (Egypt of the Pharaohs, p. 174.).; See also A. Rosalie David, The Egyptian Kingdoms, N.Y., 1975, p. 108-111.; Joyce Tyldesley, Hatshepsut, London, 1996, p. 65-69.
[0460] Ibid., ref. 450, p. 181.
[0500] Assumption: Ahinoam was an Egyptian woman.
[0510] Assumption: Ahimaaz [#11] is an Egyptian name and could stand for Ahmose on the following basis:
(a) The first syllable of Ahmosis (`A-h-mes') contains the `Alef' and `Chet (h)' of Achimaaz as well as its Yod (i) "hand" which corresponds to the hieroglyphic `Ayin' "forearm with grasping hand", See Gardiner (N18) pp. 454 D 36, and 486 N12). The correspondence between `maaz' and `mosis/mes' is easily seen.
(b) Since King David is Thutmosis I, King Saul must be Amenophis I…. This is proved beyond reasonable doubt by his wife's name, who is known in Egyptology as Ahhotep, the daughter of pharaoh Ahmosis I, and in the Bible as Achinoam, the daughter of Achimaatz … which is absolutely identical.
…Translating Achinoam into Egyptian yields Ahhotep, for hotep corresponds to Hebrew no'am "pleasant" ….
[515] According to Prof. Zion Ben-Rafael, Israel, "The peak of a woman's fertility is 28, after which a slight decrease occurs that accelerates after age 32. 40% of woman above 35 cannot become pregnant, while at 40 the rate stands at 60%. At age 45, only 10% of woman can get pregnant". [http://www.ummah.net/forum/showthread.php?t=40215] While women bearing a baby in their fifties (57 yrs of age) is very rare, fertility treatments were successful achieving it. Natural conception at that age would therefore be extremely rare. However, we recall that Sarah, the wife of Abraham, had her son Isaac at age 90, Genesis 17:17.
[0520] Assumption: This order implied a ban on intermarriage of men from Israel with women of the Hyksos or Egyptians. It was also a test of faith for King Saul.
[0540] God's warnings and prohibitions to Israel to befriend or marry idolatrous people is presented in Exodus 34:15,16 and Deuteronomy chapter 7.
[0530] JTH, ibid.
[0550] Egyptian sounding names ala Armais, Mephres and/or Mephtramuthosis (Manetho through Josephus/18th dyn.).
[0570] Laws concerning inheritance: Judges 21:17; Deut. 21:15-17; Num. 27:1-11; 36:1-12.
[0600] JTH, ibid., 127. Emphasis added.
[0610] Ibid., 75. JEA 71: 180-183.
[0620] Ibid., 76.
[0630] For carved images of Thutmose II on the interior face of a shrine see, KMT, Winter 2002/03, Vol. 13, No. 4, p. 46ff, particularly p. 50. For a painted limestone colossal head of Hatshepsut see KMT, Winter 2002/03, p. 31. The relief block showing Hatshepsut as the Great Royal Wife with her half-brother Thutmose II can be seen in Dennis C. Forbes, Maatkare Hatshepsut in KMT, Fall 2005, p. 26-(30)-42. Many other images are shown.
[0632] A smoothly carved and nicely, with painted motivs, decorated wooden model boat was found in the tomb of Amenhotep II and can be seen in KMT, Winter 2002/2003, p. 32.
[0640] Encyclopedia Judaica (EJ), "Abishag the Shunammite."
[0650] JTH, p.104.
[0660] J. Baikie, A History of Egypt, p. 63.
[0665] Metzler, Discovering the 3 Dimensional Structure of the Ten Commandments, p.14.
[0670] EJ, "Abishag the Shunammite."
[0680] EJ, Ibid.
[0685] JTH, 80.
[0700] JTH, p. 80.
[0800] Ibid., pp. 117, 118-119.
[0900] Ibid., 101.
[0910] Ibid., 102.
[0920] EJ, "Abishag the Shunammite."
[0930] JTH, 104.
[0940] Baikie, 63.
[0950] JTH, 117, 118-119.
[0960] Ibid., 119. Emphasis added.
[2000] In `The Bible Unearthed', 2002, p.128.
[2010] James, Peter, `Centuries of Darkness', p. 200.
[2020] Rohl, `A Test of Time', p. 178.
[2090] Metzler, p. 13. On corvée (forced labor), see 1.Sam. 8:12b-13,16; 1 Kings 9:21,22. Forced labor is also know from the El Amarna Letters.
[2100] Rohl, The Lost Testament, p. 361-362. Newer information seeks to address where the Palace of King David was located based on 2.Sam 5:7,17 which describes `David of going down, or descending (yered), from his residence to the citadel or fortress.' See Eilat Mazar, Did I Find King David's Palace?' in BAR, Jan/Feb 2006, p. 16-27,70.; Architectural evidence for the City of David may have been found by Ygal Shiloh when he studied a 6 inch, badly chipped column fragment. However, identical columns found at Ramat Rahel, a site halfway between Jerusalem and Bethlehem, have been restored as a palace window balustrade because such window balustrades were often used to decorate reliefs and ivories throughout the ancient Near East, including the famed `Lady at the Window' ivory from Nimrud. Ygael Shiloh, observing the striking similarity between the City of David column and those found at Ramat Rahel, concluded that the City of David column was probably part of a window balustrade in an important royal or public building near the temple. [See BAR, Mar 1988, p. 21.]
The site of Khirbet Qeiyafa, located on the hills north of the Elah Valley, has yielded two gates made with massive stones. It is surrounded by cassive casemate (double) walls containing rooms containing crished vessels,, including a lamp, a goblet, and a large number of storage jars with finger impressions - all dated to the Iron Age, which conventionally is dated to the 10th century BC. Two find two gates, which even Meggido did not have, is taken as a clue to correlate with the scripture where it says, "Therefore David ran, and stood upon the Philistine, and took his sword, and drew it out of the sheath thereof, and slew him, and cut off his head therewith. And when the Philistines saw their champion was dead, they fled. And the men of Israel and of Judah arose, and shouted, and pursued the Philistines, until thou come to the valley, and to the gates of Ekron. And the wounded of the Philistines fell down by the way to Shaaraim, even unto Gath, and unto Ekron." 1.Samuel 17:51,52. The Hebrew word `shaarrayim' is understood two mean "two gates." - K. Qeiafa was also the place where in 2008 a sherd with nine lines of writing was found, in Iron Age context, which was regarded as the oldest (or later unskilled?) Hebrew writing and where several words could be read including the words for `king, land, and judge'. In Paleo Hebrew they should look somewhat as follows - and we give the choice of words from perhaps later Hebrew times,
1.) `king' (a) `melek,' ( (b) `malka,' ,
2.) `land,' (a) `adamah', ; (b) `erets,' ; (c) sadeh), , and
3,) `judge,' (a) `dayyan', ; (b) palil, ; (c) `shaphat,' ,
[2110] G. Barkay & A. Kloner, `Jerusalem Tombs from the Days of the First Temple' in BAR, Vol. XII, May/Apr 1986, p. 22-39. A general overview, not specific.
[2120] Metzler, p. 24, n. 52.; See 1.Kings 10:13. The Hebrew word for `turn' is `panah (to face, front)' frequently used in the sense of changing direction but in Jer. 48:39 it could be used `as turning in shame or anger'. The Hebrew word for divorce is `kerithuth (cutting off)', Jer. 3:8.
[2130] JTH, p. 91. - A recent find of a 6 x 6 inch shard with Hebrew writing at the 5.7 acres site of Elah Fortress in Khirbet Qeiyafa located 20 miles SW of Jerusalem near Beit Shemesh, may throw more light on Old Testament times.
Khirbet Qeiyafa has yielded two monumental city gates, a feature that has not been found elsewhere in the Kingdoms of Judah or Israel so far. However, a pottery ostracon was found showing ancient Hebrew letters within a grit of drawn squares. Researchers said that they could make out the letters for `king, judge and slave.'




A gold wreath has been unearthed in Greece, buried with human bones 

One of the four gold wreaths bearing olive leaves excavated during works for the city metro in Thessaloniki, Greece. Archaeologists have also found the grave of a woman who lived in the northern Greek city of Thessaloniki over 2,000 years ago and was buried with elaborately-crafted jewels.

ATHENS, Greece - A priceless gold wreath has been unearthed in an ancient city in northern Greece, buried with human bones in a large copper vase that workers initially took for a land mine.

The University of Thessaloniki said in a statement Friday that the "astonishing" discovery was made during excavations this week in the ruins of ancient Aigai. The city was the first capital of ancient Macedonia where King Philip II - father of Alexander the Great - was assassinated.

The find is highly unusual as the rich artifacts appear to have been removed from a grave during ancient times and, for reasons that remain unclear, reburied in the city's marketplace near a shrine of the goddess Eukleia.

See rest of story here...
Ancient Gold Wreath in Greece

1,000 year old Exodus Verses Found. 

Nov. 9, 2007 -- The family of man who held a fragment of a more than 1,000-year-old manuscript of the Hebrew Bible for six decades as a good luck charm will present it to a Jerusalem institute next week, officials said Thursday.

The parchment, about "the size of a credit card," is believed to be part of the most authoritative manuscript of the Hebrew Bible, the Aleppo Codex, said Michael Glatzer, academic secretary of the Yad Ben Zvi institute. It contains verses from the Book of Exodus describing the plagues in Egypt, including the words of Moses to Pharaoh, "Let my people go, that they may serve me."

Sam Sabbagh, then a 17-year-old Syrian, picked up a piece of the manuscript off the floor of a synagogue in Aleppo, Syria in 1947. The synagogue had been burned the previous day in riots that followed the decision by the United Nations to partition Palestine, a step to creation of the Jewish state of Israel.

Sabbagh, who later immigrated to Brooklyn, New York, carried the parchment around for years in a plastic pouch in his wallet, Glatzer said. He used it as a good luck charm, even bringing it with him when he underwent open heart surgery.

Yad Ben Zvi in Jerusalem is a Jewish studies institute named after Israel's second president, who received the codex when it was smuggled into Israel in 1958. The institute learned of the fragment's existence about 20 years ago and attempted to persuade Sabbagh to part with the fragment -- to no avail.

After Sabbagh passed away two years ago, his family decided to donate it to the institute.

The recovery "is important in the sense that we are getting the chance to unify the missing parts and put them in their original place," said Michael Maggen, head of paper conservation at the Israel Museum, who will direct restoration of the document.

The codex itself "is not just another manuscript -- it's a landmark," largely because it lends insight into important aspects of Hebrew grammar and pronunciation, he said.

Portions of the codex that have already been retrieved are on display in the Shrine of the Book at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. The Sabbagh fragment would eventually join its counterparts there, Glatzer said.

The codex, also known as the Masoretic Text, was written in Tiberias, next to the Sea of Galilee, in the 10th century and later brought to Jerusalem. It then traveled to Cairo, after which, according to tradition, Moses Maimonides' grandson brought it to Syria. The elder Maimonides was a 12th-century Jewish scholar whose writings and rulings are still followed and studied.

"We have only about 60 percent of the codex -- more than a third is still missing," said Aron Dotan, professor of Hebrew and Semitic languages at Tel Aviv University. The missing part includes most of the Torah, or Pentateuch, he said. The codex comprised the books of the Old Testament..."
Ancient Parchment found in Syria "Let My People Go that they may serve me" Exodus

Israel's Antiquities Authority announced the discovery of 2nd Temple wall 

2008 News

Israel's Antiquities Authority announced the discovery of remains of the southern wall of Jerusalem. Dating the 2nd temple wall of Jerusalem built by Hasmonean kings. It is believed to have run 6 km around the Old City. Archeological proof a biblical Temple was built there in Jerusalem. Destroyed during the Great Revolt against the Romans that began in 66 CE. Paid for by right wing City of David foundation. Yehiel Zelinger, the excavation director, told the Jerusalem Post the wall was "amazingly" well-preserved and stands today at the height of three metres. Mr Zelinger added that he hoped the First Temple wall would be uncovered next. The find will help scholars accurately outline the borders of historical Jerusalem.

See Story on Jerusalem Post

Ancient Wall in Jerusalem dated to the 2nd Temple
Drainage Opening - City of David Foundation Discovery

 Sebuah karangan bunga emas telah ditemukan di Yunani, dikubur dengan tulang manusia Salah satu dari empat karangan bunga emas bantalan daun zaitun digali selama bekerja di metro kota di Thessaloniki, Yunani. Arkeolog juga menemukan makam seorang wanita yang tinggal di kota Yunani utara Thessaloniki lebih dari 2.000 tahun yang lalu dan dimakamkan dengan perhiasan rumit-crafted.
ATHENA, Yunani - Sebuah karangan bunga emas yang tak ternilai telah ditemukan di sebuah kota kuno di Yunani utara, dikuburkan dengan tulang manusia dalam vas tembaga besar yang awalnya pekerja mengambil untuk ranjau darat.
The University of Thessaloniki mengatakan dalam sebuah pernyataan Jumat bahwa "mengagumkan" Penemuan dilakukan selama penggalian minggu ini dalam reruntuhan Aigai kuno. Kota ini adalah ibukota pertama dari Makedonia kuno dimana Raja Philip II - ayah dari Alexander Agung - dibunuh.
Temuan ini sangat tidak biasa sebagai artefak kaya tampaknya telah dihapus dari kubur selama zaman kuno dan, untuk alasan yang tetap tidak jelas, dimakamkan kembali di pasar kota dekat sebuah kuil dari dewi Eukleia.
Lihat seluruh cerita di sini ...
Emas Kuno Membungai di Yunani 1.000 tahun Keluaran Ayat Ditemukan. 9 November 2007 - Keluarga manusia yang memegang fragmen yang lebih dari 1.000 tahun naskah Alkitab Ibrani selama enam dekade sebagai daya tarik keberuntungan akan hadir ke sebuah lembaga Yerusalem minggu depan, para pejabat mengatakan Kamis .
The perkamen, tentang "ukuran kartu kredit," diyakini menjadi bagian dari naskah yang paling otoritatif dari Alkitab Ibrani, Codex Aleppo, kata Michael Glatzer, sekretaris akademik lembaga Yad Ben Zvi. Ini berisi ayat-ayat dari Kitab Keluaran menggambarkan tulah di Mesir, termasuk kata-kata Musa kepada Firaun, "Biarkan umat-Ku pergi, supaya mereka melayani saya."
Sam Sabbagh, maka 17 tahun Suriah, mengambil sepotong naskah itu dari lantai sebuah sinagoga di Aleppo, Suriah pada tahun 1947. rumah ibadat itu telah dibakar hari sebelumnya dalam kerusuhan yang diikuti keputusan PBB untuk partisi Palestina, langkah untuk pembentukan negara Yahudi Israel.
Sabbagh, yang kemudian berimigrasi ke Brooklyn, New York, membawa perkamen sekitar selama bertahun-tahun dalam kantong plastik di dompetnya, Glatzer kata. Dia menggunakannya sebagai jimat yang baik, bahkan membawanya dengan dia ketika ia menjalani operasi jantung terbuka.
Yad Ben Zvi di Yerusalem adalah sebuah lembaga penelitian Yahudi bernama setelah presiden kedua Israel, yang menerima naskah kuno itu ketika itu diselundupkan ke Israel pada tahun 1958. Lembaga ini mengetahui keberadaan fragmen-kira 20 tahun yang lalu dan berusaha membujuk Sabbagh untuk berpisah dengan fragmen - sia-sia.
Setelah Sabbagh meninggal dua tahun lalu, keluarganya memutuskan untuk menyumbangkan ke lembaga.
Pemulihan "adalah penting dalam arti bahwa kita mendapatkan kesempatan untuk menyatukan bagian-bagian yang hilang dan menempatkan mereka di tempat asal mereka," kata Michael Maggen, kepala konservasi kertas di Museum Israel, yang akan langsung restorasi dokumen.
Naskah kuno itu sendiri "tidak hanya naskah lain - ini tengara," terutama karena meminjamkan wawasan tentang aspek penting dari tata bahasa Ibrani dan pengucapan, katanya.
Bagian-bagian dari naskah kuno yang telah diambil dipajang di Vihara Buku di Museum Israel di Yerusalem. Fragmen Sabbagh akhirnya akan bergabung dengan rekan-rekan di sana, Glatzer kata.
Codex, juga dikenal sebagai Masoretic Text, ditulis di Tiberias, di samping Danau Galilea, pada abad ke-10 dan kemudian dibawa ke Yerusalem. Hal ini kemudian melanjutkan perjalanan ke Kairo, setelah itu, menurut tradisi, cucu Musa Maimonides 'membawanya ke Suriah. Maimonides tua ini adalah seorang sarjana Yahudi abad ke-12 yang tulisan-tulisannya dan keputusan masih diikuti dan dipelajari.
"Kami hanya sekitar 60 persen dari naskah kuno itu - lebih dari sepertiga masih hilang," kata Aron Dotan, profesor bahasa Ibrani dan bahasa Semit di Tel Aviv University. Bagian yang hilang meliputi sebagian dari Taurat, atau Pentateuch, katanya. naskah kuno ini terdiri dari kitab-kitab Perjanjian Lama ... "
Perkamen kuno yang ditemukan di Syria "Biarkan Ku Pergi Orang-orang supaya mereka melayani Aku" Keluaran Israel Antiquities Authority mengumumkan penemuan dinding Candi 2 2008 Berita Israel Antiquities Authority mengumumkan penemuan sisa-sisa tembok selatan Yerusalem. Kencan dinding candi 2 Yerusalem dibangun oleh raja-raja Hasmonean. Hal ini diyakini telah berjalan 6 km di sekitar Kota Tua. Bukti arkeologi alkitabiah Candi dibangun di sana di Yerusalem. Hancur selama Revolusi Besar melawan Roma yang dimulai pada 66 CE. Dibayar oleh yayasan sayap kanan Kota Daud. Yehiel Zelinger, direktur penggalian, mengatakan kepada Jerusalem Post tembok itu "menakjubkan" terawat baik dan berdiri hari ini di ketinggian tiga meter. Mr Zelinger menambahkan bahwa ia berharap Kuil Pertama dinding akan ditemukan selanjutnya. Menemukan akan membantu penerima beasiswa akurat garis perbatasan Yerusalem sejarah.

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